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Reka Cipta,

Inovasi
&
Kreativiti

Our world is very different from the world of our


ancestors. Tens of thousands of inventions and
discoveries have transformed the way we do things and
the way we think. An invention is something new,
created by arranging things in some novel way. A
discovery is a thing or principle that already existed,
needing only to be found. But it is often difficult to tell
where invention ends and discovery begins. Whatever
they are, few inventions or discoveries are made
overnight. There is usually a period of preparation
before they emerge. Even then, they take time to act. An
invention may take years to displace existing methods.
A discovery may take generations to change habits of
thought. (Bridmann, 2000)

Imagine a world where no one has discovered


electricityor a world where electricity has been
discovered, but the inventions didnt know what to
do with it! There would be no telephones, radios,
televisions, computer game, internetthe list goes
on and on. Think how different the whole story of the
world would be without these, and other, great
inventions. Without the invention of aeroplanes and
later, the jet engine, for example, a journey from
Britain to Australia could take a very and I mean
very long time. Now, nowhere in the world is more
than 24 hours away in the fastest planes.
Adargh (2000)

Konsep Reka cipta


A new product, system, or process that has never existed
before, created by study and experimentation.
An original device, idea, or process originated after study and
experiment - a discovery or a new finding.
A new device, process, and so on, that has been created. Can
be in either physical or conceptual form. Pre-existing
knowledge is combined in a new way to yield something that
did not before exist.
An invention is any new thing that makes something faster,
easier, more powerful, more efficient, more attractive, more
accurate, more fun, or more productive in short just plain
better.

Formula Reka cipta


(TRIZ method)
Masalah + Idea + (Teori) + Kepakaran +
R&D + Material + Modal + Paten
___________________________________
REKA CIPTA
___________________________________

Creative problem solving begins


when knowledge and simply
thinking about a problem fails
One sometimes finds what one
is not looking for
Alexander Fleming

Sebatang besi buruk bernilai RM5, jika


anda mengambil besi buruk tersebut dan
hasilkan ladam kuda nilainya akan
bertambah RM50.50, dan jika ia digunakan
untuk membuat jarum nilainya akan
meningkat kepada RM3,285. Jika anda
menghasilkan spring jam ia akan bernilai
RM250,000. Perbezaan antara RM5 dan
RM250,000 adalah KREATIVITI,
REKA CIPTA dan INOVASI
Ripleys Believe It or Not

Invention is science-driven, and today ultimately


derives from the codification of theoretical
knowledge, and from the unfolding logic of
technology, such as miniaturization, greater speeds,
use of and adaptation to new materials, etc.
Daniel Bell, 2001

SAINS
TEKNOLOGI
PENEMUAN
KEJURUTERAAN

INVENSYEN

Intelligence

determines the upper limits of a persons


ability to obtain and store information without
actually being itself part of creativity. The degree of
creativity depends upon the amount of novelty
created in the processing of the information made
available by intelligence. Cropley (2003)
At some point in their lives, each of these
individuals discovered the most important key to
creativity. They actively used their imaginations to
go beyond their knowledge.Gamez (2000)

Bioteknologi

Teknologi nano

Kuasa Atom
SPACE
TRAVEL

Komputer

Televisyen

kapalterbang

Radar

Sintetik

plastik

Telefon

Kamera

Fotograf

Telegraf

Bot wap

Lokomotif

Enjin Lombong
LOOM

Alat pintal Jenny

Enjin wap Watt


REVOLUSI INDUSTRI

Undang-undang Newton, Enjin wap (NEWCOMEN)

Elektrik

Api, Alatan
Batu

Tulisan
Zaman Gangsa

Serbuk peledak

Magnet, Teleskop
Pembuatan kertas di Timur Tengah
Pengairan, sistem perparitan

Zaman Besi

Reka cipta Abad ke-21


Pengklonan
Produk kesihatan dan penjagaan diri
Internet dan kepintaran buatan (AI)
Kad pintar
Produk sukan
Produk hiburan berkonsep maya
Komunikasi segera capaian seluruh dunia
Penggunaan sel solar secara menyeluruh
Akhbar elektronik
Hand videophone
Darah, jantung, paru-paru, buah pinggang, hati
dan telinga tiruan
Sistem wang elektronik
Teknologi robotik dalam pelbagai bidang pekerjaan,
permainan kanak-kanak dan barangan pengguna
Telesidang tiga dimensi
Kereta pintar
Kejuruteraan genetik dalam makanan, perubatan dan
sebagainya
Mutasi manusia

Reka cipta

Inovasi

Mencipta produk

Membuat perubahan

(1) Baru dan unik.

(1) Penambahbaikan.

(2) Asli.

(2) Modifikasi.

(3) Risiko tinggi.

(3) Risiko rendah.

(4) Toleran terhadap kesilapan.

(4) Pengurusan risiko.

(5) Komitmen jangka panjang.

(5) Komitmen untuk mencapai


matlamat.

(6) Berterusan.

(6) Berubah-ubah.

(7) Proses yang kompleks.

(7) Proses yang bersistematik.

(8)

(8)

(9) Hasil tidak dapat dijangka.

(9) Hasil dirancang dan dapat dijangka.

(10) Lazimnya melibatkan individu


dan
bersifat kepuasan.

(10)

Kategori Pereka Cipta

Pereka cipta yang bekerja dalam industri


dan bisnes (captive inventor) iaitu
bekerja sebagai penyelidik.

Pereka cipta bebas (independent


inventor) iaitu pereka cipta yang
menjadikan aktiviti reka cipta sebagai
kerjaya sepenuh masa dan kerja
sambilan.

One sometimes finds what one is


not looking for
Alexander Fleming

being at the right place


and the right time.

Kesan EUREKA!

pencarian yang panjang


memperoleh progress yang kecil
kejadian yang tidak dirancang
pancaran kognitif
transformasi

Bette Nesmith (setiausaha) Liquid paper


Hubert Booth (jurutera jambatan) vacum cleaner
King Camp Gillette (jurujual) Pisau cukur
Wright Bersaudara (tukang basikal) Kapal terbang
Samuel Moorse (pelukis) Alat telegraf
Robert Fulton (guru) Bot kuasa wap
Kimberly Clark (jurujual) tisu kleenex
W.K Kellogs (pekerja restoran) makanan bijirin
J.B Dunlop (doktor haiwan) Tayar Penumatik
Marion Donavon (suri rumah) - diapers

Idea-idea kreatif kerapkali


diterbitkan oleh orang-orang
yang salah, dari jabatan yang
salah, yang mempunyai
latarbelakang yang salah,
dalam unit-unit yang salah dan
pada waktu yang salah
Tom Peters

Reka cipta Konkrit

Reka cipta Sosial

Fokus utama dalam bidang Sains


dan Teknologi (sains gunaan)

Sains sosial (sosiologi, sains politik,


pendidikan,undang-undang,
linguistik, komunikasi, antropologi,
geografi dan sebagainya)

Produk boleh dikomersialkan

Produk boleh dikomersialkan

Menjalankan Penyelidikan,
Pembangunan dan teknologi

Menjalankan Penyelidikan dan


Pembangunan

Manusia sebagai pusat masalah

Manusia sebagai pusat masalah

Berasaskan teori dan model sains


fundamental

Berasaskan teori dan model sains


sosial

Pereka cipta?
a man (they were all men) had to have obtained a patent or
applied for a patent
Someone whos the first to think of or make something
Anyone whos involvement and contribution was essential to
the development of the invention
Someone who creates or produces an original device, idea or
process
Manakala Nobel e-Museum mendefinisikan pereka cipta
sebagai;
An inventor is someone who makes or produces things and
objects for the first time through the use of the imagination or
of ingenious thinking and experiment
An inventor is a person which creates new inventions,
typically mechanical or electrical machines or others devices of
practical use.

Eksperimen & Pembangunan Produk


Produk

Tempoh
eksperimen

30 tahun
30 tahun
22 tahun
7 tahun

Antibiotik
Zip
Kopi segera
Pen mata bola

Katalis Reka cipta?

Survival dan gaya hidup masyarakat


Sistem pendidikan
Penulisan dan filem fiksyen sains
Perubahan hidup dan keperluan semasa
Bakat dan kepintaran manusia
Menyelesaikan masalah & R&D
Faktor-faktor alam (gempa bumi, banjir, tsunami dll)
Kekayaan Sumber alam
Penguasaan dan persaingan

``We are building airplanes, not cement


walks. If you want to build cement
sidewalks, then you can do away with
engineering. Just mix the materials, pour
them into a form and collect your money.
But if you want to build and sell airplanes,
you first have to create them. That takes
research and development, and testing, and
engineering.''
Claire Egtvedt, First Boeing Head of
Engineering

Pertandingan Reka Cipta

Hammcher Schlemmer Search For Invention Contest, U.S


National Invention Contest For Kids , U.S
German International Invention Show, Nuremberg
Taipei International Invention Show & Technomart
Sydney Star Invention Contest, Australia
Student Invention Contest, South Korea
Alabama Inventors Open Contest, U.S
Energy Inventions Contest, U.S
National Invention Contest, Manila, Philipines
European Union Contest for Young Scientist
British Invention Show
Lemelson MIT prize
PHILIPS Young Inventors Challenge
Seoul International Invetion Fair, South Korea
An International Invention, Innovation, Technology Exhibition and
Competition, Malaysia (ITEX)
Pameran Reka abentuk Graduan Institusi Pengajian Tinggi

Geneva International Exhibition of Inventions, Switzerland

Harta Intelek (IP)


Arief (2002) menyatakan bahawa harta intelektual
menurut undang-undang ciptaan mempunyai
empat elemen penting iaitu;
Sekumpulan hak yang diberi oleh undangundang seperti hak cipta, tanda niaga, paten,
reka bentuk perindustrian dan sebagainya.
Hak tersebut disabitkan pada maklumat atau
idea yang digambarkan dalam barang ciptaan
dan bukan pada barang ciptaan tersebut.
Maklumat atau idea itu mestilah telah dizahirkan
dalam barang ciptaan.
Ia bertujuan untuk melindungi hasil usaha
pencipta terutamanya dalam knteks ekonomi.

Undang-undang IP

Di Malaysia, terdapat empat jenis


perlindungan harta intelektual iaitu:

Akta Cap Dagangan 1976


Akta Paten 1983
Akta Hak Cipta 1987
Akta Reka Bentuk Perindustrian 1996
Akta Petunjuk Geografi 2000
Akta Reka Bnetuk Susun Atur Litar
Bersepadu 2000

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