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BY:

Yean Kek Fong (B10204)


Subashiny Krishnamurthy (B10153)
Sudheep Ramasamy (B10127)
Alice Durga Rathinam (B10128)
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Discuss
cognitive advantages
&
disadvantages of bilingualism
in
children and adults

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What is bilingualism ?

Ability to communicate naturally


and fluently in more than one
languages in all area of life

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Who are bilinguals ?

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Children

Simultaneous bilinguals

Learned 2 languages at the


same time in early
childhood.
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Adults
Sequential
Bilinguals

Learned 1 language later then


the other.

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Advantages

Metalinguistic
Awareness

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Cognitive flexibility
Divergent thinking Convergent thinking

Measured by providing Measured by providing


a person with a starting a number of pieces of
point for thought and information where a
asking them to generate person must synthesize
a whole series of to get the correct
permissible solutions. answer.

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Cognitive flexibility

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Metalinguistic Awareness
 Ability to identify and describe characteristics and
features of language in term of how they are integrated
into the wider language system.
 Are knowledge about language
 Obtain better semantic development and classification
skills

Phonological Metalinguistic Word Awareness


Awareness Awareness
(sound units )

Syntactic Awareness
(Grammatical) 10
Communicative Sensitivity

Participant’s level of awareness


about what is going on in any
particular language interaction.

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Communicative Sensitivity

More sensitive Pick up clues Code switching


to the needs of and cues about solve cognitive
listeners when to switch tasks.
languages.
Research
Literature

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Cummins & Gulutsan
(1974)

Enhance greater
ability & verbal
originality.

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Field Independence

Children

more field
independent
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Common Underlying
Proficiency(CUP)

Developed by Jim Cummins

Shows the working of the mind
in

relation to bilingual acquisition

Also known as the Iceberg
Analogy. 15
Common Underlying
Proficiency(CUP)
The level of competence a
child
attains at a certain point in
a
second language dependent
on
the level of competence
already
achieved in their first
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language.
Common Underlying
Proficiency(CUP)
The interdependent of concept skills and
knowledge found in a centre processing system.

Cognitive and literacy skills established in the


mother tough or first language will transfer across
languages

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CUP Model

2 iceberg 2 languages which overlap


and share

Water line A common underlying


proficiency or
operating system 18

Both language are outwardly
distinct

But supported by shared
concepts
and knowledge derived
from

Learning Cognitive and


and linguistic abilities
experience of the learners

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Common Underlying
Proficiency(CUP)

Deeper level of cognitive processing
e.g. : synthesis, analysis, evaluation
is necessary to academic progress


Children &
adults :
If achieved threshold of cognitive
proficiency
No difficulties in achieving bilingual
proficiency 20
Bilingualism creates connective reserve

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Cognitive advantages
Enhance attention and cognitive control
(children and adult)

Children

sharpen the brain & the ability to

focus while ignoring irrelevant


information

better learner in school.
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Delays the age related
diseases

New neurobiology research :

Bilingualism particularly in early


childhood enhance the concentration
and protect against the onset of
dimensia and other age related
illness.
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Potential Disadvantages
of Bilingualism among
children and adults

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Disadvantages

Acquire language more slowly


than monolinguals.

(collier 1995: Hamayan & Damico 1991)

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Disadvantages
Start speaking 3-6 months later

Learn one language first & add a


second one later during school time.

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Disadvantages

Temporary mixing of
Languages till the age of 4.

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Disadvantages
The size/ amount of vocabulary

(Pearson Fernandez Collar 1993)

Preschool bilingual children's vocabulary


scores are often lower than monolingual
children.

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Disadvantages

The time/exposure of the children to


the certain language effects the
numbers of vocabularies in that
language.

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Disadvantages

Delay in language acquisition of


past tense.

This delay is faced by children


aged between 4-6 years old.

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Disadvantages
Bilingual children use fewer
correct past tense-specially
irregular past tense.

gooded

runned

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Disadvantages
Smaller *receptive & productive
vocabularies.

*Receptive: willing to listen to or


accept new ideas or suggestions.
Verbal fluency tests.

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Disadvantages

Great bilingual disadvantage on


semantic than on letter fluency.

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Disadvantages

Added academic load

Reading/writing

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Disadvantages
Usually are either better at one
language & worse at the other.

Example: Let's say a person knows English


& Chinese. He may be more comfortable
reading English newspapers & take more
time with chinese newspaper.

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Conclusion
Various studies have proven that

bilingualism is not a disadvantage

where there is need to prevent from


children & adult.

It is a gift of life to be bilingual.
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