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Level of chlorine in drinking
water of Islamabad at
consumers end.
Dr Farrukh Iqbal,Roll No:6
-Water is included in Physical environment
-3/4th of earth surface is water
-6 million gallon water evaporate/ sec
-Much of ill health in under developed country is due to water
of our research is to know Chlorine level in water supply of Islamabad so
that consumer can get maximum benefits of chlorination and avail safe
water supply.
• Water is vital for life and is one of the basic resources for existence
• According to United Nations’ statistics, over one billion people, one-sixth
of the world’s population, lack clean drinking water
• Contamination of natural sources of fresh water is a serious issue in
Pakistan as wastewater from raw sewage, industrial waste, and agriculture
runoffs may be mishandled and dumped directly into lakes, rivers and
• Chlorine, the most common disinfectant in the US, is effective in killing most
pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
• Many public water systems add chlorine (a process known as “chlorination”)
to their water supply for the purpose of disinfection
Why Add Chlorine to Drinking Water
• To kill certain bacteria
• To replace chlorine lost by dissipation in the municipal piping
• To ensure adequate disinfection when pH is high
What Chlorine Level is Recommended for
Continuous Disinfection
As a general guideline, drinking water should contain 0.5- to 2
ppm chlorine throughout an automated watering system
• Where and When • What are
Should Chlorine be Chlorination By-
Chloroform Products
Range 0.7 - 540 µg/L, Mean 26.4 µg/L
As a worst case (where
the concentration will BromodichloromRange 1.9 - 183 µg/L, Mean 9.1 µg/L
be the lowest), measure
the chlorine at points
farthest from the Chlorodibromo Range 0.4 - 280 µg/L, Mean 5.7 µg/L
incoming supply water
right before flushing
• Sample holding time Bromoform Range0.4 - 280 µg/L, Mean 5.7 µg/L

For chlorine Chloroacetic

Range <1 - 5 µg/L

measurements, test the

sample immediately. Dichloroacetic Range12 - 79 µg/L, Mean 47 µg/L
Chlorine in water is not
stable and the Trichloroacetic Range4 - 103 µg/L, Mean 38 µg/L
concentration will Acid

decrease rapidly Dichloroacetonit Range 1.9 - 24 µg/L, Mean 2 µg/L

• What are the Health AIM:
Effects of Chlorine
Byproducts To assess the level of
chlorination in
In animals many drinking water at
adverse effects of consumer end.
chlorine Byproducts OBJECTIVES:
have been observed
e.g. Liver, Intestinal To quantify the level
and Kidney tumors but of chlorine in drinking
in Human beings up water at consumer
till now Carcinoma of end
Bladder is reported.
METHODOLOGY: Sample size:
Type of study: Sample size is calculated
with Macorr Sample Size
Comparative cross sectional survey Calculator. Available at
Data collection techniques: www.Macorr.com/ss_calcul
Forty Five houses from each sub- ator.htm.The sample of 360
sector of G6 and G10 subsequently
was calculated of 8000
houses of sector G6 and G10
will be selected randomly. Sample
With 95% confidence level
will be taken in a glass bottle sun and 5% error
light was tried to avoid. Study site:
Sampling: G6 and G10 sectors of
Simple random sampling Islamabad
Study duration:
90 days
• Plan for data collection, • Data Security and Quality
processing and analysis: Management
Samples have to be collected in a Pilot testing of questionnaire will be
glass bottle and avoid sun light carried out in another in union
because of its effects on chlorine. council other then the union councils
Level of chlorine should be
calculated through orth tolidine test of study area. Questionnaire will be
kept in lock in key with the
• Data Collection tool: researcher. Field editing will be done
The principal investigator will of questionnaire. Researcher will
receive the data and he will enter make sure that the data is collected
the data and analyze it. properly by data collectors by
• Data Entry: refilling the 5-10 questionnaires in
the field daily.
Data will be enter by the researcher
using SPSS version16 • ETHICAL
• Plan of Analysis: CONSIDERATION:
Descriptive statistics such as Prior approval of the study from
means, standard deviations, ethical review board of HEALTH
frequencies, rates, and ratios will SERVICES ACADEMY will be
be calculated for different variables taken. Then written consent will be

taken from every household before
the collection of sample.
• Variables:
 Source
 Distance
 Distribution system
 Level of chlorine • Budget
• WORK PLAN: A Total amount of
One team will be formed Rs=51,670/Pkr is
for this purposes and this required
team will have three for total study.
I will also take three
volunteers for this
Of Chlorin

S# Task to be performe

Hiring of Personn