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CHAPTER VII

DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS

A. DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC
CURRENT
Electric current illustrated as a motion of positive
charges passing through from the higher potential
to the lower potential.
Electric current (i) defined as the amount of
charge passing through in every unit of time
( second ).

q
i
t
q
n
e

i = Electric current ( ampere )


q = charge ( coulomb )
t = unit of time ( second )

n = the amount of electron


e = the electron charge/the elementary charge
= 1,6 x 10 -19 C

Direction of electric
current

Direction of moving electrons

Direct current
source

B. RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTING
WIRE

The resistance of a conducting wire depends on :


Length of the wire
Cross section Area
Kind of the wire
Temperature
Formula :
R = Resistance ( Ohm, )
= Resistivity
of the material ( m)

A =R
Cross-section
Area ( m2)
L = Length
(m)

Resistivities and TemperaturecCoefficients of Resistivity fo


various Materials
RESISTIVITY TEMPERATURE
MATERIALS
COEFFICIENT(1/OC)
(m)
Silver
Copper
Gold
Aluminum
Tungsten
Iron
Platinum
Lead
Nichrome
Carbon
Germanium
Silicon
Glass

1,59 x 10-8
1,7 x 10-8
2,44 x 10-8
2,82 x 10-8
5,6 x 10-8
10 x 10-8
11 x 10-8
22 x 10-8
1,50 x 10-6
3,5 x 10-5
0,46
640
1010 - 1014

3,8 x 10-3
3,9 x 10-3
3,4 x 10-3
3,9 x 10-3
4,5 x 10-3
5,0 x 10-3
3,92 x 10-3
3,9 x 10-3
0,4 x 10-3
-0,5 x 10-3
-48 x 10-3
-75 x 10-3

Temperature Influence for resistivity and resistance


If temperature of wire is increase, so the resistivity and the resistance of it is
increase

Rt Ro (1 .T )

t o (1 .T )

or

or

R RO . .T
O . .T

O = initial of resistivity (m)


t = final of resistivity (m)
Ro = initial of resistance()
Rt = final of resistance ()
T = the change of temperature (oC)

= temperature coefficient of resistivity (/oC)

R = The change of resistance

C. OHMS LAW
The ratio of the voltage (V) across a conductor to the
current (i) that flows through it is equal to a constant.
This constant is called resistance (R)

V
R
i

V i R

A = Ammeter
L

V = Voltmeter
L = Lamp

i = Current (A)
V = Voltage/the potential difference (V)

R = Resistance ()

Graph of V - i

R = tan
i

MEASUREMENT OF CURRENT
AND VOLTAGE

D. SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUIT


Kirchhoffs first rule:
The sum of the currents entering the any junction must equal the sum of the currents leaving the junction.
Example :

i5

i6
I1

i4
I2

i3

i1 + i 2 + i 4 = i 3 + i 5 + i 6

SERIES CIRCUIT (VOLTAGE DIVIDER)


R1

R2

R3

Characteristic :
I
V

i1 = i2 = i3 = I
RS = R 1 + R 2 + R 3
V = V1 + V 2 + V 3
V1 : V2 : V3 = R1 : R2 : R3

R1
V1
V
RS

R2
V2
V
RS

The current
passing through
every resistor is
equal.
The potential
difference on
every resistor is
different.

R3
V3
V
RS

V I RS

PARALLEL CIRCUIT (ELECTRIC CURRENT DIVIDER)


R1

i1
I

Characteristics :

R2

i2

The current
passing through
the junction is
different.

i3
R3
V

1
1
1
1

RP
R
R
R
1
2
3
V1 V 2 V 3 V
1
1
1
i1 : i2 : i3
:
:
R1 R 2 R 3

i1

Rp
R1

i2

Rp
R2

The potential
difference of every
junction is equal.

i3

Rp
R3

V
I
Rp

E. WHEAT STONES BRIDGE


R1
R2
If in the
G
galvanometer (G)
there are no
LA
LB
electric current
Conducting
wire
passed, called a
galvanometer in

because
R
.
R
=
R
.
1
2
R
B
equilibrium

R
so;A
condition
R = wire resistance of part A
R 1 . L B = R2 .
R = wire resistance of part B
LA
L = wire length of part A
A
B

LB= wire length of part B

The forms of Wheat stone bridge:


R1

R2

If:
R1 . R3 =
R
2 . R4
so, R can

R5

R4

R3

R1

reduced and
then the wheat
stone bridge
circuit can
R1
R2
simplify to be:

R2

R5

R4

R3
R1

R4

R5

R2
R3

R4

R3

If R1 . R3
so,R
the
circuits can be transforms to Y form
2 . R4
(transformation of to Y forms)
R2
R1

R2

Rb
Ra

Rb

R5
Rc

R4

R1 R4
Ra
R1 R4 R5
R1 R5
Rb
R1 R4 R5

Ra

R3

Rc

R4 R5
Rc
R1 R4 R5

R3

F. SOURCE OF ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (EMF)

Current in conductor is produced by an


electric field, and electric field is formed by
the potential difference, devices such as
batteries and dynamos should be connected to
the circuit. These sources of electric energy
are called source
ofRelectromotive force ()
K

r
V

When the switch K is open, the voltmeter reads is EMF ()


When the switch K is closed, the voltmeter reads is clamping voltage (V)

V= i R

V= clamping voltage = potential difference on the


external resistance

=iR+i
r

=i(R+
r)

Rr

= EMF (volt)

r = internal
resistor ( )
R = external
resistor ( )

Batteries connected in series


1

r1

r2

r3

= 1 + 2 +3
r = r1 + r2 + r3

R
If the batteries are identical, and
each has an EMF , and an
internal resistance r

= n
r = n r

i
R r

Batteries connected in parallel


1

r1

r2
i

1.r1 2 .r2 3 .r3



r1 r2 r3

r3

r1.r2 .r3
r
r1.r2 r2 .r3 r1.r3

For identical batteries:


=
r
r
n

i
R r

G. KIRCHHOFFS SECOND RULES


The sum of the drops in potential difference in a close circuit is
equal to zero.
+ (i . R) = 0

or = (i. R)

(i.R) = Dropping Potential difference


= EMF ( electromotive force )
In applying Kirchhoffs rules, the following rules should be noted:
1. Assign a symbol and direction to the currents in each part of the circuit
2. Loops are chosen and the direction around each loop is designated
3. The sign of the current are taken + when they are in the same direction
of loops, and taken - when they are in the opposite direction of loops
4. The sign of the EMF are taken + when loops inside polar (+) of
elements, and taken - when loops inside polar (-) of elements

G. WORK DONE BY THE ELECTRIC CURRENT ( JOULES LAW)

The amount of heat dissipated from a current carrying


conductor is proportional to the resistance of the
conductor, the square of current and the time needed
for the current to pass trough the conductor

W=qV
Since q = i t,

W=Vit

And V= I R

W = i2 R t

W = electrical energy (J)


V = potential difference (volt)
q = charge (C)
i = electric current (A)
t = time ( s )

V2

The electrical energy dissipated per unit time


(second) is called electrical power.

Vit

t
i 2 Rt

V2
t
P R

P = Electric Power (Watt)

PVi
Pi R
2

V
P
R