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Cogeneration Cycle

By
K.BABA SAHEB
(0209-1602)
ME (CAD/CAM)
2nd SEM

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology
(Affiliated to Osmania University, Hyderabad)
Gandipet, HYDERABAD- 500075
MAR - 2009
Abstract
 Cogeneration (also combined
heat and power, CHP) is the use of
a heat engine or a power station to
simultaneously generate both
electricity and useful heat.
 Thermal power plants and heat engines in
general, do not convert all of their thermal
energy into electricity. In most heat
engines, a bit more than half is lost as
excess heat.
 By capturing the excess heat, CHP uses
heat that would be wasted in a
conventional power plant, potentially
reaching an efficiency of up to 89%,
compared with 55% for the best
conventional plants.
 This means that less fuel needs to be
consumed to produce the same amount of
useful energy.
 A car engine becomes a CHP plant in
winter, when the reject heat is useful
for warming the interior of the vehicle.
This example illustrates the point that
deployment of CHP depends on heat
uses in the vicinity of the heat engine.

 By-product heat at moderate


temperatures (212-356°F/100-180°C)
can also be used in absorption chillers
for cooling. A plant producing
electricity, heat and cold is sometimes
called trigeneration or more
generally: polygeneration plant.
Contents
 Introduction
 Types of Plants
 Gas Turbines
 Steam Turbine Power Plant
 Gas Turbine With Regeneration
 Combined Cycle
 Design Principle for combined cycle
 Combined Cycle Power Plant
 Results
 Conclusion
 Bibliography
Introduction
 Conventional power plants emit the heat
created as a by-product of electricity
generation into the environment through
cooling towers, flue gas, or by other means.
CHP or a bottoming cycle captures the by-
product heat for domestic or industrial
heating purposes, either very close to the
plant, or—especially in Scandinavia and
eastern Europe—as hot water for district
heating with temperatures ranging from
approximately 80 to 130 °C.
 This is also called decentralized energy.
 Some tri-cycle plants have utilized a
combined cycle in which several
thermodynamic cycles produced
electricity, and then a heating system
was used as a condenser of the power
plant's bottoming cycle. Tri-cycle
plants can have thermal efficiencies
above 80%.
 CHP is most efficient when the heat
can be used on site or very close to
it. Overall efficiency is reduced when
the heat must be transported over
longer distances.
 This requires heavily insulated pipes,
which are expensive and inefficient;
whereas electricity can be
transmitted along a comparatively
simple wire, and over much longer
distances for the same energy loss.
Types of Plants
 Topping cycle plants

 Bottoming cycle plants

Common CHP plant types are:

 Gas turbine CHP plants

 Gas engine CHP plants

 Steam turbine CHP plants


Combustion (Gas)
Turbines
 Combustion turbine plants operate on the
Brayton cycle. They use a compressor to
compress the inlet air upstream of a
combustion chamber. Then the fuel is
introduced and ignited to produce a high
temperature, high-pressure gas that enters
and expands through the turbine section.
 The turbine section powers both the
generator and compressor. Combustion
turbines are also able to burn a wide range of
liquid and gaseous fuels from crude oil to
natural gas. The combustion turbine’s energy
conversion typically ranges between 25% to
35% efficiency as a simple cycle.
Simple Cycle Power Plants
(Open Cycle)
Steam Turbine Power
Plants
 Steam turbine power plants operate on a
Rankine cycle. The steam is created by a
boiler, where pure water passes through a
series of tubes to capture heat from the
firebox and then boils under high pressure to
become superheated steam.

 The superheated steam leaving the boiler


then enters the steam turbine throttle, where
it powers the turbine and connected generator
to make electricity.
Steam Turbine Power
Plant
Gas Turbine with
Regeneration
 The simple cycle efficiency can be
increased by installing a recuperator
or waste heat boiler onto the
turbine’s exhaust.
 A recuperator captures waste heat in
the turbine exhaust stream to
preheat the compressor discharge air
before it enters the combustion
chamber
Combined Cycle
 A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing
engine or plant that employs more than one
thermodynamic cycle. Heat engines are only able to use a
portion of the energy their fuel generates (usually less than
50%).
 The remaining heat from combustion is generally wasted.
Combining two or more "cycles" such as the Brayton cycle
and Rankine cycle results in improved overall efficiency.
 In a combined cycle power plant (CCPP), or
combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant, a
gas turbine generator generates electricity
and the waste heat is used to make steam to
generate additional electricity via a steam
turbine; this last step enhances the efficiency
of electricity generation. Most new gas power
plants in North America and Europe are of
this type.
 In a thermal power plant, high-temperature
heat as input to the power plant, usually
from burning of fuel, is converted to
electricity as one of the outputs and low-
temperature heat as another output.
 As a rule, in order to achieve high
efficiency, the temperature difference
between the input and output heat
levels should be as high as possible.

 This is achieved by combining the Rankine


(steam) and Brayton (gas) thermodynamic
cycles. Such an arrangement used for marine
propulsion is called
Combined Gas (turbine) And Steam (turbine)
(turbine
(COGAS).
Design Principle
 In a thermal power station water is the
working medium. High pressure steam
requires strong, bulky components. High
temperatures require expensive alloys
made from nickel or cobalt, rather than
inexpensive steel.
 These alloys limit practical steam
temperatures to 655 °C while the lower
temperature of a steam plant is fixed by
the boiling point of water. With these
limits, a steam plant has a fixed upper
efficiency of 35 to 42%
 An open circuit gas turbine cycle has a
compressor, a combustor and a turbine.
For gas turbines the amount of metal that
must withstand the high temperatures and
pressures is small, and lower quantities of
expensive materials can be used. In this
type of cycle, the input temperature to the
turbine (the firing temperature), is
relatively high (900 to 1,400 °C).
 The output temperature of the flue gas is
also high (450 to 650 °C). This is therefore
high enough to provide heat for a second
cycle which uses steam as the working
fluid; (a Rankine cycle).
Combined cycle power
plant
 In a combined cycle power plant, the
heat of the gas turbine's exhaust is
used to generate steam by passing it
through a heat recovery steam
generator (HRSG) with a live steam
temperature between 420 and 580 °C.
 The condenser of the Rankine cycle is
usually cooled by water from a lake,
river, sea or cooling towers. This
temperature can be as low as 15 °C
Results
 By combining both gas and steam cycles,
high input temperatures and low output
temperatures can be achieved. The
efficiency of the cycles add, because they
are powered by the same fuel source.

 So, a combined cycle plant has a


thermodynamic cycle that operates between
the gas-turbine's high firing temperature and
the waste heat temperature from the
condensers of the steam cycle.
 This large range means that the
Carnot efficiency of the cycle is high. The
actual efficiency, while lower than this is
still higher than that of either plant on its
own. CHP is one of the most cost efficient
methods of reducing carbon emissions of
heating in cold climates.
 The thermal efficiency of a combined cycle
power plant is the net power output of the
plant divided by the heating value of the fuel. If
the plant produces only electricity, efficiencies
of up to 60% can be achieved. In the case of
combined heat and power generation, the
Energy Utilisation Factor (overall efficiency)
can increase to 85%.
Conclusions
 By this, we can conclude that more
thermal efficiency can be achieved.
 This approach provides with superior
performance, decreased operating
expenses and increased return on
investment.
 Better utilisation of fuel will be
possible using this combined cycle. It
means that less fuel needs to be
consumed to produce the same
amount of useful energy
Bibliography
 www.hitachi.com
 www.cogeneration.net
 catalog.asme.org/books/PrintBook/Ha
ndbook_Cogeneration
 www.team-bhp.com/forum/technical-
stuff/35859-honda-researching-
advanced-hybrid-drive-rankine-
cycle-co-generation
 www.gas-turbines.com
 www.howstuffworks.com
 www.gepower.com
 igti.asme.org
 www.kawasakigasturbines.com
 www.Siemens.com
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