Gear Trains

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Gear Trains

© All Rights Reserved

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Machines

Class 8

GEAR TRAINS

Introduction

collection of two or more

meshing gears.

automobiles, automated

machines and numerous

other applications

Suggested Problems

9-(2,6,11,19,27,39,41)

carries only one gear.

this gearset is found by:

N

mV 2

N3

N

N 3 N n 1

2

N4

N n1

Nn

the gearset. It is positive when the total number

is n-1 is odd and negative when the n-1 is even.

of about 10:1. A single gearset will become

very large, expensive, and hard to package

above that ratio if the pinion is kept above

the minimum numbers of teeth needed to

avoid interference.

avoid violating the minimum number of

teeth interference rule, which could happen

if the input gear meshes directly with the

output gear.

N

mV 2

N3

N

N 3 N n 1

2

N4

N n1

Nn

direction, but more than one idler is superfluous. There is

little justification for designing a gear train as is shown in

the figure.

obtained with a single gearset, the simple train will only

function as a method of moving the location of the output

shaft of the gear set to another location.

simple train of many gears could be used but will be more

expensive than a chain or belt drive for the same

application. Most gears are not cheap.

N

mV 2

N3

N

N 3 N n 1

2

N4

N n1

Nn

with spur, helical, or bevel gears (or any

combination thereof) it is necessary to use a

compound train. A compound train is one in which

at least one shaft carries more than one gear.

two of which, gears 3 and 4, are fixed on the same

shaft and thus have the same angular velocity.

The train ratio is:

5 3 5

2 2 4

N N

mV 2 4

N3 N5

mV

mV

Productofnumberteethof drivergears

Productofnumberteethof drivengears

Example 1

If presented with a completed design of a compound gear train, it is a trivial task to determine the

train ratio. It is not so simple to do the inverse, namely, design a compound train for a specified train

ratio

Example 1

are necessary. Simplicity is the mark of good design, so try

the smallest possibility first. Take the square root of 180, which

is 13.416. So, two stages each of that ratio will give

approximately 180:1.

However, this is larger than our design limit of 10:1 for each

stage, so try three stages. The cube root of 180 is 5.646, well

within 10, so three stages will do.

Example 1

gear teeth which will yield 5.646:1,

we can simply use three of them to

design our gearbox.

pinion and trying several possibilities

we get the gearsets shown in the Table

as possibilities.

Example 1

the Table is the 79.05 result. Thus a 79:14 gearset comes closest to the

desired ratio.

Applying this ratio to all three stages will yield a train ratio of (79114)3 =

179.68:1 , which is within 0.2% of 180:1 . This may be an acceptable solution

provided that the gearbox is not being used in a timing application. If the

purpose of this gearbox is to step down the motor speed for a crane hoist, for

example, an approximate ratio will be adequate

Example 1

camshafts or linkages from a master driveshaft and must have

the exact ratio needed or else the driven device will eventually

get out of phase with the rest of the machine.

If that were the case in this example, then the solution found

above would not be good enough. We will need to redesign it

for exactly 180:1.

Example 1

for integer gearset ratios. Thus we need three integer factors of

180. The first solution above gives us a reasonable starting point in

the cube root of 180, which is 5.65. If we round this up (or down) to

an integer, we may be able to find a suitable combination.

by 36 gives 5. Thus the stages shown in the Table provide one

possible exact solution.

Trains

transmissions, it is desirable or even

necessary to have the output shaft

con centric with the input shaft. This

is referred to as "reverting the

train"or "bringing it back onto itself."

train is more complicated because

of the additional constraint that the

center distances of the stages must

be equal.

Trains

constraint can be expressed in

terms of their pitch radii, pitch

diameters, or numbers of teeth

r2 r3 r4 r5

d 2 d3 d 4 d5

N2 N3 N4 N5

Example 2

Example 2

Though it is not at all necessary to have integer gearset ratios in a compound train (only

integer tooth numbers), if the train ratio is an integer, it is easier to design with integer ratio

gear sets.

The square root of 18 is 4.2426, well within our 10:1 limitation. So two stages will suffice in this

gearbox.

Example 2

equal to the square root of the overall train ratio, the train

would be reverted by default. Table 9-8 shows that there are

no reasonable combinations of tooth ratios which will give

the exact square root needed. Moreover, this square root is

not a rational number, so we cannot get an exact solution

by this approach

Example 2

factors 9 x 2 and 6 x 3 are less than I 0, so they are

acceptable on that basis. It is probably better to have the

ratios of the two stages closer in value to one another for

packaging reasons, so the 6 X 3 choice will be tried

Example 2

of the stages must be equal.

N2 N3 N4 N5 K

N2 1

, N3 6N2

N3 6

N2 6N2 7N2 K

N 4 3N 4 4 N 4 K

N4 1

, N 5 3N 4

N5 3

Example 2

4, which is 28. This yields N = 4 teeth and N = 7 teeth.

2

4

to increase K sufficiently to make N = 12. This results in K = 84.

2

This results in the following viable solution:

N 2 12, N 3 72

N 4 21, N 5 63

TRAINS

described in the previous sections

are all one-degree-of-freedom (DOF)

devices.

application, the epicyclic or

planetary train. This is a two-DOF

device. Two inputs are needed to

obtain a predictable output.

TRAINS

differential, one input is provided (the

driveshaft) and two frictionally coupled

outputs are obtained (the two driving

wheels).

transmissions, aircraft engine to propeller

reductions, and in-hub bicycle transmissions,

two inputs are provided (one usually being a

zero velocity, i.e., a fixed gear), and one

controlled output results.

TRAINS

I is immobilized as the ground link. The

same gearset could have link 1 free to

rotate as an arm which connects the two

gears. Now only the joint 02 is grounded

and the system DOF = 2.

sun gear and a planet gear orbiting

around the sun, held in orbit by the arm.

TRAINS

Typically, the arm and the sun gear will each be

driven in some direction at some velocity. In

many cases, one of these inputs will be zero

velocity, i.e., a brake applied to either the arm

or the sun gear.

makes a conventional train out of the epicyclic

train. Thus the conventional gear train may be

considered a special case of the more general

epicyclic train, in which its arm is held

stationary.

TRAINS

only gear left to take an output from, after putting

inputs to sun and arm, is the planet. It is a bit

difficult to get a usable output from this orbiting

gear as its pivot is moving.

gear has been added. This ring gear meshes with

the planet and pivots at O , so it can be easily

2

tapped as the output member. Most planetary

trains will be arranged with ring gears to bring the

planetary motion back to a grounded pivot.

TRAINS

In this configuration, the sun gear, ring gear, and arm are all brought out as concentric hollow shafts

so that each can be accessed to tap its angular velocity and torque either as an input or an output.

TRAINS

varieties. Levai catalogued 12

possible types of basic epicyclic

trains.

connected together to create a

larger number of trains having

more degrees of freedom. This is

done, for example, in automotive

automatic transmissions.

TRAINS

TRAINS

over conventional trains among which are

higher train ratios in smaller packages,

reversion by default, and simultaneous,

concentric, bidirectional outputs available

from a single unidirectional input.

popular as automatic transmissions in

automobiles and trucks, etc.

TRAINS

observe that since the gears are rotating with respect

to the arm and the arm itself has motion, we have a

velocity difference problem.

angular velocities relative to the arm, the velocities in

an epicyclic train can be determined. This requires

that the tooth numbers and two input conditions are

known.

L arm

N

F R

F arm

NL

TRAINS

F

the train (chosen at either end), and represent the

L

angular velocity of the last gear in the train (at the other

end).

Writing the equation for the first gear in and for the last

gear in the system, and dividing the second equation by

the first we get

L arm

NF

R

F arm

NL

F arm F arm

L arm L arm

TRAINS

the train ratio. We can rearrange the formula to solve for

the velocity difference term. Then, let represent the

F

angular velocity of the first gear in the train (chosen at

either end), and represent the angular velocity of the

L

last gear in the train (at the other end).

Writing the equation for the first gear in and for the last

gear in the system, and dividing the second equation by

the first we get

F arm F arm

L arm L arm

L arm

N

F R

F arm

NL

FERGUSON'S PARADOX

The Ferguson's paradox is a compound epicyclic train with one 20-tooth planet gear (gear 5) carried on the

arm and meshing simultaneously with three sun gears. These sun gears have l00 teeth (gear 2), 99 teeth

(gear 3), and 101 teeth (gear 4), respectively.

FERGUSON'S PARADOX

gears and the planet are the same

despite the slightly different pitch

diameters of each sun gear.

properties of the involute tooth form.

Each sun gear will run smoothly with the

planet gear. Each gearset will have a

slightly different pressure angle.

Example 4

Example 4

L arm

N

F R

F arm

NL

Sungear#2withsungear#3

3 arm

N

100

2

2 arm

N3

99

3 100 100

100

99

3 1.01 rpm

Sungear#2withsungear#4

4 arm

N

100

2

2 arm

N4

101

4 100 100

100

101

4 0.99 rpm

FERGUSON'S PARADOX

This result accounts for the use of the word paradox to describe this

train. Not only do we get a much larger ratio (100:1) than we could

L arm

N

F R

F arm

NL

have our choice of output directions.

which are always in mesh, and which give different ratio forward

speeds, plus reverse, by simply engaging and disengaging brakes on

different members of the train. The brake provides zero velocity input

to one train member. The other input is from the engine. The output

Sungear#2withsungear#3

3 arm

N

100

2

2 arm

N3

99

3 100 100

100

99

3 1.01 rpm

transmission according to the selection of the operator (Park,

Reverse, Neutral, Drive, etc.).

Sungear#2withsungear#4

4 arm

N

100

2

2 arm

N4

101

4 100 100

100

101

4 0.99 rpm

Humpage's reduction gear. Bevelgear epicyclic trains are used quite

frequently and their analysis may be

carried out as spur-gear epicyclic

trains.

L arm

N

F R

F arm

NL

Sungear#2withsungear#6

6 arm

N N5

20 24

2

0.245

2 arm

N4 N6

56 35

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