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Modeling Composite Material Impact

with Abaqus/Explicit
Lecture 13

L13.2

Overview
Introduction
Composite Damage Models in Abaqus/Explicit
Unidirectional Fiber
Example Composite Plate Impact
Woven Fabric
Example Corrugated Beam Crushing
Modeling Techniques

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

Introduction

L13.4

Introduction
Impact resistance of composite materials is of primary importance in
many industries
Automotive
Road debris
Vehicle crashworthiness
Aerospace
Aircraft crashworthiness
Bird strike
Defense
Ballistics

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

Composite Damage Models in


Abaqus/Explicit

L13.6

Composite Damage Models in Abaqus/Explicit


Abaqus/Explicit provides additional damage models for fiber-reinforced
composite materials.
The built-in damage model discussed in Lecture 9 can only be used with
elements that have a plane stress formulation.
Plane stress, membrane, and shell elements.
User-defined material subroutines (VUMATs) are available to extend this
capability to elements with other stress states (3D, for example).
Composite damage VUMATs
Two routines are available:
Unidirectional fiber VUMAT (extension of built-in capability to include
3D)
Available via SIMULIA Answer 3123
Woven fabric VUMAT
Available as a built-in user subroutine
Both of these routines require user input to specify how the composite
materials will behave under load.
Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT

L13.8

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


The primary assumption is that elastic stress/strain
relations are given by orthotropic damaged elasticity

Four damage variables are introduced


Two associated with fiber tension and
compression

d ft , d fc

Two associated with matrix tension and


compression

d mt , d mc

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.9

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


These four damage variables are used to define global fiber and matrix
damage variables.
d f 1 (1 d ft )(1 d fc )
d m 1 (1 d mt )(1 d mc )

The damaged elastic constants, Cij, are defined in terms of the


undamaged elastic constants and the damage variables.
C11 (1 d f )C110
0
C22 (1 d f )(1 d m )C22

C33 (1 d f )(1 d m )C330


C12 (1 d f )(1 d m )C120
0
C23 (1 d f )(1 d m )C23

The factors smt and smc control the


loss of shear stiffness by matrix
tensile and compressive failure,
respectively.

C13 (1 d f )(1 d m )C130


G12 (1 d f )(1 smt d mt )(1 smc d mc )G120
G23 (1 d f )(1 smt d mt )(1 smc d mc )G230
G31 (1 d f )(1 smt d mt )(1 smc d mc )G310
Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.10

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


The undamaged elastic constants are functions of the undamaged
Youngs moduli and Poissons ratios

C110 E110 (1 23 32 )
0
C220 E22
(1 13 31 )

C330 E330 (1 12 21 )
C120 E110 ( 21 31 23 )
0
C230 E22
( 32 12 31 )

C130 E110 ( 31 21 32 )
1 (1 12 21 23 32 31 13 2 21 32 13 )

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.11

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


19 user material constants must be specified for this subroutine
Youngs moduli in the three primary axes

E011, E022, E033


Poissons ratios
12, 13, 23
Shear moduli

G012, G013, G023


Shear strengths

S12, S13, S23


Tensile and compressive failure stress in each primary direction

X1t, X1c, X2t, X2c, X3t, X3c


Damping (optional)

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.12

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


Data input
*MATERIAL, NAME=matName
*DENSITY

*USER MATERIAL, CONSTANTS=27


** Line 1:
0
E110 , E22
, E330 , 12 , 13 , 23 , G120 , G130

** Line 2:
0
G23
, ,0,0,0,0,0,0

** Line 3:

X 1t , X 1c , X 2t , X 2 c , X 3t , X 3c ,0,0
** Line 4:

S12 , S13 , S 23
*DEPVAR, DELETE=5
17

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

Why did the


previous slide
indicate 19
constants are
required?

L13.13

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


Output
In addition to the standard output variables for stress-displacement
elements, the following output variables have a special meaning for
this VUMAT:
SDV1

Tensile damage along direction 1 (fiber direction)

SDV2

Compressive damage along direction 1

SDV3

Tensile damage along direction 2 (transverse direction)

SDV4

Compressive damage along direction 2 (transverse


direction)

SDV5

Material point status; 1 if active, 0 if failed

SDV6-11

Components of viscous stresses if beta-damping is active

SDV12-17

Components of elastic strain tensor

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.14

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


Example: Composite laminate plate ballistic impact

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.15

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


Results:

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.16

Unidirectional Fiber VUMAT


Using cohesive elements for delamination prediction

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

Woven Fabric VUMAT

L13.18

Woven Fabric VUMAT


A schematic of the assumed woven material
is shown to the right.

The fiber directions are assumed to be, and to


remain, orthogonal (no wrinkling due to shear).
The constitutive stress-strain relations are formulated in a local1
Cartesian coordinate system with base vectors aligned with the fiber
directions.
The fabric reinforced ply is modeled as a homogeneous orthotropic
elastic material with the potential to sustain progressive stiffness
degradation due to fiber/matrix cracking, and plastic deformation under
shear loading.

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.19

Woven Fabric VUMAT


It is assumed that the elastic stress-strain relations are given by
orthotropic damaged elasticity.

11

22

12

(1 d1 ) E1

21

E2

12
E1

1
(1 d 2 ) E2

11

22

12

(1 d12 )2G12

Three global damage variables are used and are associated with fiber
fracture along the 1- and 2-directions and matrix micro-cracking due to
shear deformation.
The model differentiates between tensile and compressive fiber failure
modes by activating the corresponding damage variable depending on
the stress state in the fiber directions

d1 d1

11
11
22
22
d1
; d 2 d 2
d 2
| 11 |
| 11 |
| 22 |
| 22 |
Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.20

Woven Fabric VUMAT


Fiber response
The material response along the fiber directions is characterized
with damaged elasticity. It is assumed that the fiber damage
variables are a function of the corresponding effective stress
The criterion for initiation of fiber failure is assumed to take the
form
Shear response

%

X

( 1,1, 2, 2)

The shear response is dominated by the non-linear behavior of the


matrix, which includes both plasticity and stiffness degradation due
to matrix microcracking
The criterion for initiation of shear failure is assumed to take the
form

12

%
12
S

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.21

Woven Fabric VUMAT


Element deletion
The VUMAT provides an option to delete elements when any one
tensile/compressive damage variable along the fiber directions
reaches a maximum specified value, or when the plastic strain due
to shear deformation reaches a maximum specified value.
Calibration
The elastic constants and the fiber tension/compression strengths
are easily measured from standard coupon tests in uniaxial
tension/compression loading of 0/90 laminates.
The calibration of damage evolution in the fiber failure modes is
based on the fracture energy per unit area of the material, which
can be measured experimentally.
The shear response is usually calibrated with a cyclic tensile test on
a 45 laminate, where the strains along the fiber directions can be
neglected.

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.22

Woven Fabric VUMAT


26 user material constants must be specified for this subroutine
Youngs moduli in fiber 1- and 2-directions

E1, E2
Poissons ratio
12, 12
Shear modulus

G12
Shear stress at the onset of shear damage

S
Tensile and compressive strength along fiber directions

X1, X2
Shear equation parameters
12, d12max
Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.23

Woven Fabric VUMAT


Energy per unit area for tensile and compressive fracture along fiber
directions

Gf1, Gf2
Shear plasticity coefficients

y0, C, p
Controls for material point failure

lDelFlag,

dmax, plmax, max, min

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.24

Woven Fabric VUMAT


To activate the model for fabric reinforced composites the
material name must start with the string
ABQ_PLY_FABRIC

Data input

*MATERIAL, NAME=ABQ_PLY_FABRIC_matName
*DENSITY

*USER MATERIAL, CONSTRANT=40


** Line 1:
E1 , E 2 , 12 , G12 , E1 , E 2 , 12
** Line 2:
X1 , X1 , X 2 , X 2 , S

** Line 3:

G1f , G1f , G 2f , G 2f , 12 , d12max

** Line 4:
%y 0 , C , p
** Line 5:
pl
, max , min
lMpFail , d max , max
*DEPVAR, DELETE=16
16
Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.25

Woven Fabric VUMAT


Output
In addition to the standard output variables for stress-displacement
elements, the following output variables have a special meaning for
this VUMAT:
SDV1

Tensile damage along fiber direction 1

SDV2

Compressive damage along fiber direction 1

SDV3

Tensile damage along fiber direction 2

SDV4

Compressive damage along fiber direction 2

SDV5

Shear damage

SDV6

Tensile damage threshold along fiber direction 1

SDV7

Compressive damage threshold along fiber direction 1

SDV8

Tensile damage threshold along fiber direction 2

SDV9

Compressive damage threshold along fiber direction 2

SDV10

Shear damage threshold

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.26

Woven Fabric VUMAT


Output (contd)
SDV11

Equivalent plastic strain

SDV12

Elastic strain component 11

SDV13

Elastic strain component 22

SDV14

Not used

SDV15

Elastic strain component 12

SDV16

Material point status: 1 if active, 0 if failed

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.27

Woven Fabric VUMAT


Example: Composite woven fabric beam crush

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.28

Woven Fabric VUMAT


Results:

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

Modeling Techniques

L13.30

Modeling Techniques
Stable time increment
For Abaqus/Explicit, the concept of the stable time increment is important
to understand


E
E

t min Le
;

2
(1 )(1 2 )
2(1 )

When modeling composites at the laminate level, very small element


dimensions can be encountered
This can lead to a very small stable time increment, requiring a large
number of increments to complete an analysis
For a typical composite where Le0.2 mm, 1.5e9, E65 GPa,
and 0.3, t is on the order of 1e10 seconds.
To simulate 1 millisecond will require 10 million increments!
Some ideas for dealing with this follow.
Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.31

Modeling Techniques
Stable time increment
Use double precision if the number of increments will exceed 300,000
To attempt a more time economical solution, the following may be helpful
Mass scaling can be used to speed up the simulation for the
purposes of checking model setup
Dynamic response will be affected
Group layers of common material orientation together and model as
one layer
Use continuum macroscopic (i.e., anisotropic global) properties to
model the composite instead of using a mixed modeling technique

Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus

L13.32

Modeling Techniques
Interior surfaces for erosion
If erosion will be considered in an impact analysis, care must be taken when
defining contact
Interior mesh surfaces must be included in the contact definitions

The inclusion of interior faces is not currently supported in Abaqus/CAE, and


requires a manual edit to the input file. For example:
*SURFACE, NAME=interior_elems, TYPE=ELEMENT
all_elems, interior
This creates a surface named interior_elems consisting of the interior
faces of the element set all_elems, which can now be used in the contact
domain
Analysis of Composite Materials with Abaqus