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TIME SERIES DESIGN

This design is actually an elaboration of the


one-group pretest-posttest design. One


group is repeatedly pre-tested, exposed to a
treatment, and then repeatedly post tested.
Further, in this design researcher
periodically observes the participants and
gathers necessary information from the
participants.
 OOOXOOO
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Chapter 8: Understanding &
Writing the Chapter III of the
Research Report

8.10 Qualitative Research


Design
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES

v examine human experiences


(called lived experiences)
v Comes from the description that
are provided by the individuals
involved in the study.
v Bracketing is the process in
which qualitative researchers
put aside their own feelings and
beliefs about the phenomena
under consideration to keep
them from having biases in their
observations.
Example:
Quality of life at work : perceptions of the
nursing team in the nosocomial organization . A
phenomenological study

This study aimed at understanding the meaning of the


quality of life at work under the optics of the
nursing team in the hospital everyday work. The
individuals were 15 professionals of the nursing team
who work at a nosocomial organization located in the
city of Teófilo Otoni, Minas Gerais. The information
have been collected in June, 2006, through open
interview, respecting the ethical aspects. The guiding
issues were the following: “To you, what is Quality of
Life at Work?”; “Describe situations in which you have
experienced the Quality of Life at Work in your work
environment”.
ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDIES

vThis collects data from groups, such


as certain cultural groups.
vEthnographers frequently live with
the individuals they are studying.
vData are collected from key
informants, who are the people
knowledgeable about the culture.
Example
The Experience of Dying : An
Ethnographic Nursing Home Study

This article reviews the literature on


“The Experience of Dying” and presents
data from a larger, ongoing study of an
ethnography of dying in nursing homes.
The purpose of the ethnographic study
was to investigate the process of
providing end-of-life care to residents
who were dying in nursing homes.
GROUNDED THEORY STUDIES
vThe data and information are
collected and analyzed, and then a
theory is developed that is
grounded or based on the collected
data.
vA process called constant
comparison is used, wherein data
are constantly compared to the
data that have been already been
gathered.
vIn the process, pertinent concepts are
Example:
Preparing the air for nursing care : A
grounded theory study of first line
nurse managers

The first line nurse managers’ opportunities to


lead nursing care seem to be diminishing. The
aim of this study was, therefore, to gain an
understanding of the first line nurse managers
in their experiences in the development of
nursing care as part of a wider research
programme. Finnish nurse managers wrote
narratives at the beginning of five different
leadership courses in this grounded theory
study. ‘Preparing the Air for Nursing Care’
emerged as a core category.
HISTORICAL STUDIES
v This concerns the identification, location,
evaluation and synthesis of data from the past.
v The objective of historical design is not only to
discover “what was in the past” but also to
relate such past events to “what is in the
present” and “what will be in the future.”
v Historical data should be subjected to both
external and internal criticisms.
v External criticism is concerned with the
authenticity of the data, while internal
criticism is concerned with the accuracy of the
data.
v Data collected using historical research can be
categorized as primary (first-hand
information) or secondary (second-hand
Example:
Nursing and the evolution of the
baccalaureate graduate nurse : A historical
study of foundations , education and
perceptions -- implications for the future of
health care

Historically, four influential factors have helped


determine success in efforts toward improving
personal life. Nursing has been shaped by those same
educational, secular, religious, and military
influences. Nursing evolved from a job, often no more
than being a handmaiden for others wishes and needs,
into a profession whose members are becoming
autonomous, able to create and use bodies of
knowledge, as well as develop and manage new
positions and roles. This dissertation takes
direction from a central question. How did the
baccalaureate graduate nurse evolve and what are the
implications of this evolution for the future of
health care? This dissertation synthesizes a large
body of research and examines the effects of
multiple variables on nursing and the baccalaureate
CASE STUDIES:
vThese are in-depth examinations of
people, groups of people, or
institutions.
vContent analysis is the term used to
indicate the examination of
communication messages obtained
in case studies, as well as in other
types of qualitative studies.
vCase studies can either be
quantitative or qualitative in its
nature depending upon the purpose
Example:
Case Study of the American British Cowdray
School of Nursing

This case study is the last of five looking at the


influence of culture on fundraising activities in
international non-profits. The American British Cowdray
School of Nursing (ABCSN), a nonprofit school
affiliated with a local Mexican hospital and
university, reflects many of the fundraising practices
common to Mexican non-profit organizations, which are
in fact few. In Mexico, fundraising and philanthropy
have never been widely practiced, a restrictive legal
and tax framework inhibits fundraising activity, there
is a general mistrust of nonprofits, and there is a
general lack of knowledge about or skills with
fundraising among nonprofit organizations. This case
study examines the organizational structure and
fundraising strategies of the ABCSN, and then reflects
on the influence the cultural context of the
ACTION RESEARCH
v It is a type of qualitative

research that seeks
action to improve
practice and study the
effects of the action
that was taken.
v Participatory Action
Research is a special
kind of action research
in which there is
collaboration between
the study
participants and the
researcher in all
steps and aspects of