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The State of Science

and Technology of
PhilRice: Addressing
the
Challenge of
Increasing Rice
Productivity

Introduction
Theworldhumanpopulationisincreasingattherateofabout80millionper
year (Willey, 2000). By the year 2020, the population is expected to be 8 billion
people with most of the increase occurring in developing countries, which can
hardly afford to feed their growing population (Brynes&Bumb, 2008). The
continuesgrowthinpopulationiscausingproblemonhowtomeetthedemandfor
food particularlyrice whichisamajorpartoffoodspending,comprising16%of
thetotalexpendituresofthepoorest30%ofthepopulation(WorldBank,2007).

The more than 100 million population of the Philippines, whichis also
continuouslyincreasingattheannualrateof2%oralmost2millionFilipinosper
year, is also facing the same dilemma (Koirala et al, 2013; IRRI, 2014;
Rappler,2014.) Rice is the staple food of Filipinos and account for 46% of their
calorie intake and 35% of their protein consumption (David &Balisacan 1995;
FAO,2008).Consequently,thericeindustryisthemostimportantsourceofincome
and livelihood among small farmers and landless agricultural workers in the
country(DrilonJr&Goldberg,1969;Sebastianetal,2000;Bordey,2010).Because
of its social and economic importance more attention is being given by the
governmenttotheproblemofriceshortage.Increasingriceproductivitywillhelp
indecreasingthepriceofricemakingitmoreaffordabletothepublic,anditwill
also enhance the competitiveness of domestic rice industry in the international
market(Bordey,2010).

Therearemanyproblemsaffectingriceproductivity.Someoftheseinclude
issuesoflanduse,landarea,infrastructures,andpestpressures,amongothers.
ResearchersclaimthatthePhilippinesdonothaveenoughlandareatoproduceits
totalricerequirements,anditsarablelandbeingplantedtoriceiscontinuously
decreasingbecauseofrapidurbanization.(Sebastianetal,2000;Bordey,2010;
IRRI,2014).Thelackofinfrastructureslikemodernirrigationsystems,postharvest
facilities,andmodernfarmingmachinescompoundedbyinefficientinvestmentsin
infrastructuresarealsomajorproblemsintheindustry(DrilonJr&Goldberg,1969;
Sebastianetal,2000;Borley,2010;IRRI,2014).Moreover,pestspressuresand
inefficientfertilizerusearealsocontributingtothelowproductivity
(Litsinger,1989;Sebastianetal,2000).
Tokeeppacewithhumanpopulationgrowth,highyieldingricevarietieswere
developedwhichcanbeplantedwholeyearround,bothinrainyanddryseasons.
However,theyearroundplantingofricealsoallowedforyearroundpest
development.Thispracticeresultedtopestspressuresduetooutbreakofpestand
diseases.Theoverapplicationoffertilizerswhichledtothedevelopmentofinsect
resistantvarietiesfurthercomplicatedtheproblem(Litsinger,1989;Sebastianetal,
2000).Moreover,theeffectofextremeweatherconditionswhichisbeingattributed
toclimatechangenecessitatestheneedtodevelopedricevarietiesthatwilladoptto
longerperiodsofhightemperatureandperiodsofheavyrainfall.Accordingto
Lansiganetal,(2000),thecountrysricelossesfrom1970-1990amountedto
82.4%ofthetotalproductionduetotyphoons,floods,anddroughts.

ThePhilippineshasbeenstrivingtobeself-sufficientinriceandaimingtobeanet
exporterbutsofarfailed.ThePhilippineStatisticsAuthority(PSA)saidthatriceoutput
for 2014 reach only 18.69 million metric tons (MMT) which is lower than the 19.07
MMT production set by the Department ofAgriculture (DA). Recently, the Philippine
governmentannouncedtheimportationofadditional500,000MTofriceontopofthe
800,000 MT bought from Vietnam via a government to government deal (Phil Star,
2014).
Recent trend indicates that the growth of the rice sector has become completely
dependent on yield improvements which could be developed through investments in
R&D (David & Balisacan,1995; Gonzales,1999; Koirala et al,2013). Realizing the
importance of science and technology (S&T) in meeting the challenges of improving
rice productivity, the government established national R&D agencies to oversee and
implement rice programs and projects, and PhilRice was one of those agencies. The
Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), a government owned and controlled
corporation(GOCC)attachedtotheDAwascreatedin1985throughExecutiveOrder
1061 to perform R&D works towards a self-sufficient, sustainable, and competitive
Philippinericeeconomy(www.philrice.gov.ph).
Becauseofthechallengesbesettingthericeindustry,itisimperativetolookatthe
capabilityofresearchinstitutionslikePhilRiceinrespondingtosuchchallengesgiven
theirstateofR&Dcompetitiveness.Insodoingwillalsohelpdeterminehowelsecould
PhilRiceimproveandcontinuetoserveitsmandate.

Objectives
Generally,thiscasestudyaimedtoanalyzethestateofScienceand
Technology(S&T)ofPhilRice,andhowitaddressesthechallengeof
increasingriceproductivitytomeetthedemandsoftheincreasingpopulation.

Specifically,itsoughtto:

1.describePhilRicesS&Tcompetitivenessintermsofthefollowingindices:
a.institutions
b.infrastructure
c.innovations
d.technologicalreadiness
e.businesssophistication

2.dentifythesocial,environmental,andotherissuesthatPhilRiceaddress;and
3.identifytheneedsinordertoimprovetheS&TcapabilityofPhilRice.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Rice,beingastaplefoodhereinthePhilippinesandotherAsiancountries,is
facedwithproductivityproblemduetotheballooningpopulation.Inastudymade
bySiwar,et.al(2013),showedthatMalaysia,initsefforttoaddresstheissuesand
challengesinriceproductionandfoodsecurity,foundtheimportanceofitsgranary
areas in enhancing self-sufficiency level. Various efforts and government
interventionshavebeenimplementedtoensurethattheseareaswillremainasthe
important granary area. Several approaches were also introduced to improve the
productivityandstabilityoffoodproductionaswellasinoutliningtheagendato
ensure the countrys food supply. Furthermore, the study identified several
challenges in addressing rice production such as degradation of soil and water
resourcesandincreaseduseofagrochemicalwithdecreaseduseefficiency,adverse
changesinmicroclimate,landfragmentation,labourandenergyshortage.
Inaddressingthechallengesofriceproductivity,scienceandtechnologyplays
animportantrole.InareviewmadebyFloroset.al(2010),applicationsofscience
and technology within the food system have allowed production of foods in
adequatequantitiestomeettheneedsofsociety,asithasevolved.Duetoscience
andtechnology,production-to-consumptionfoodsystemthoughcomplex,islargely
safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more
readily accessible than ever before. Therefore, scientific and technological
advancementsmustbeacceleratedfurtherandappliedindevelopedanddeveloping
nationsaliketofeedagrowingworldpopulation

Science and technology is not only useful in coping with the


increasingpopulation,butalsounderthehighlyglobalizedandcompetitive
world economy conditions, science-technology and innovation oriented
competitivenessstrategyisthemostimportantfactorforcountriesnotonly
to strengthen their global competitiveness but also to achieve sustainable
longrungrowth.InastudymadebySenerandSandogan(2011)foundout
that countries which have science-technology-innovation oriented global
competitiveness strategies have sustainable competitiveness and long run
growth. For this reason, countries should design their science-technology
innovation oriented economic strategies and policies in order to achieve
sustainableglobalcompetitivenessandlongrungrowth.
Moreso, in a study made by Padilla and Gaudin(2013), an empirical
evidencecollectedthroughquestionnaire-basedinterviewswithhigh-level
government officials in each country shows that Central American
governments have built public organizations and institutions to support
Science, Technology, and Innovations (STI), such as laws, national plans
and a wide variety of policy instruments. Yet available science and
technologyindicatorsillustratethattheresultsarestillmeager.Theirstudy
identifies eight barriers faced by these governments when designing and
implementingSTIpolicies.

Further,therewasastudyinPalestineproposingforpoliciesthatcan
be adopted by private sector institutions that will enhance their
competitivenessinlocalandexportmarketsthroughproductresearchand
development.(El-Jafari,2008).

On the other hand, study on competitiveness of science and


development organizations is very limited despite the rapid increase in
research and development organizations not only in the Philippines but
especially in developing countries. Its competitiveness should be looked
into. In a study made by Rasa &Algimantas (2014), they developed the
R&D effectiveness assessment system in the research organizations by
incorporating the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) methodology in to
the assessment process. The TRL methodology was modified by the
authorsthatinsteadofsettingthetechnologicalleveloftheorganization,it
defines the coverage of R & D activity type depending on the strategic
goals of research organization, what predestine the indicators of their
performance evaluation. The successful incorporation ofTRLconcept in
the assessment process enables to evaluate the effectiveness of different
typeofresearchorganizationsandalsobalancesthesignificanceofBasic
Research,AppliedResearchandDevelopmentalResearchactivities.

ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK

Thisstudywasguidedbytheenablingenvironmentsorsome
ofthepillarsoftheGlobalCompetitivenessIndex.Fromthe12
pillars, five pillars that could describe the state of S&T of
PhilRice were selected, namely: Institutions, Infrastructure,
Innovation, Technological Readiness, and Business
Sophistication.
Institutions include property rights, intellectual property
protection, leadership, R&D spending, and transparency in
governance. Infrastructure refers to quality of overall
infrastructure, and quality and availability of R&D equipment
andfacilities.Technologicalreadinessisbasedonavailabilityof
technologies, technology absorption capacity, and ICT
infrastructure.BusinesssophisticationincludeR&Dthrustsand
valuechainbreadth.Innovationreferstocapacityforinnovation,
quality of research outputs, publications, patent and patent
application,andlinkageandcollaboration.

Though the study did not look into the real values of the
differentindicesunderthepillars,itdescribedthepresenceofthese
indices. Some of these indices were described intensely based on
ourperceptionsasinfluencebyourownobservationsandbasedon
ourdeskresearch.
The different pillars strongly built at PhilRice are instrumental
intheimplementationofitsR&DProgramsandProjects,takinginto
consideration the issues besetting our rice industry like climate
change, pests pressures, decreasing land area, and lack of postharvestfacilities,amongothers.Addressingthesedifferentissuesin
the R&D programs and projects implemented would ensure
developmentofcost-reducingandyield-enhancingricetechnologies
which will boost rice productivity despite the problems of climate
change,increasingpestspressures,decreasinglandarea,andlackof
post-harvestfacilities.Whenthefarmersusethesetechnologies,then
the country will be able to increase its rice productivity and
ultimately will address the over-all goal of food security in the
country.

Figure 1 shows the analytical framework of the study.

Figure 1. The Analytical Framework of the Study

METHODOLOGY
ThestudyemployedtheCaseStudy
approachsincethisresearchdesignismost
appropriateformakingadetailedstudyonasingle
subject(Yin,1994).Dataweregatheredthrough
documentreview,keyinformantinterview(KII),
andsitevisit.Aninterviewguidewasusedforthe
KII,andinformationgatheredfromtheKIIand
documentreviewweresummarizedand
categorizedintothemesandusedininferringour
conclusionsandrecommendations.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The S&T Status of the Philippine Rice Research Institute
I. Institution
A. Intellectual Property Policy
ThePhilippineRiceResearchInstitute(PhilRice)subscribestotheconceptof
intellectual property right (IPR) as a right conferred by law upon individuals and
institutions for the generation of new technologies for the production of superior
goodsforthebenefitofsociety.
Justlikeanylegalright,theIPRmustbeinvokedandbevestedintheholder,
otherwise it is deemed waived. Even as a publicly funded institution is morally
obliged to provide its goods and services to the public for free, PhilRice shall,
nevertheless,invokeandvestitsrightstoitsintellectualproperty(IP)foritsown
benefit as well as that of its members. Its IP policy, institutionalized on 25 May
2004,hopetoserveasincentivethatwillspuritsmemberstogeneratemoreIPwith
commercialapplications.Further,thispolicyhopestoachievethegoalsofpursuing
research and development programs focused on generating new technologies,
promoting rapid technology transfer of new technologies through protection, and
generating alternative sources of funding through commercialization of these
technologies.
PhilRice has its own Intellectual Property Management Office as well as an
Innovation and Technology Support Office, directly supervised by the Executive
DirectorandthatarebackedbytheLegalOffice.

B. Leadership
Organizational Structure
Asanorganization,PhilRiceisheadedbytheboardoftrustees,executive
director,deputyexecutivedirectors,programleaders,anddivisionheads.
TheboardoftrusteesactsasthehighestpolicymakingbodyofPhilRiceandischaired
bytheSecretaryofAgriculture.Itiscomposedofrepresentativesfromacademicandscience
communities,governmentofficesconcernedinriceresearchanddevelopment,businesssector,
consumergroups,andfarmergroups.
Theexecutivedirector,whoalsoactsastheboardsecretary,isthechiefoperatingofficer
ofPhilRiceandisin-chargeoftheover-alloperationsoftheInstitute.Heaccountabletothe
SecretaryofAgricultureinachievingthegoaloftheInstituteinlinewiththeagricultural
developmentplan.
PhilRicehasdeputydirectorsforresearch,fordevelopmentandforadministration,
support,andfinance.Thedeputydirectorsforresearchandfordevelopmentpreparethe
corporateplansandimplementtheresearchandtechnologyprogramsandprojectsinthe
centralandbranchstationsandnetwork.Thedeputydirectorforadministration,support,and
financeprovidestheadministrativeandfinancialsupportservicestoR&D,aswellas
supervisesthephysicalplanningandmaintenanceofPhilRicesinfrastructurefacilitiesand
legalandsecurityservices.
Theprogramleaders,chosenfromamongthequalifiedseniorstaff,providetheoverall
operationalstrategyanddirectiontotheR&Deffortsoftheprogramandcoordinatethe
overallactivitiesoftheInstitute.
ThedivisionheadsfacilitatetheimplementationofR&Dprojectsunderthedivision,setting
thepaceofadministrativeactivities,andmaximizingtheuseofresources.

Divisions
There are 13 divisions that consist PhilRice, namely, Plant Breeding and
Biotechnology, Agronomy, Soils and Plant Physiology, Crop Protection,
GeneticResources,RiceEngineeringandMechanization,RiceChemistryand
Food Science, Socio-Economics, Development Communication, Technology
ManagementandServices,Administrative,Finance,InformationSystems,and
SeedTechnology(www.philrice.gov.ph).
The Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Division leads efforts in the
conservation, development, improvement and utilization of appropriate rice
varieties towards sustainable, profitable and competitive farming. It seeks to
ensurestableandsustainablericeproductionthroughthedevelopmentofhigh
yielding, pest and abiotic stress resistant and good grain quality rice varieties
suitabletomajorricegrowingecosystems.
TheAgronomy,SoilsandPlantPhysiologyDivisionleadsresearchefforts
to evaluate, refine, and facilitate the delivery of improved soil, nutrient, and
watermanagementpracticestoenhancesoilqualityandprofitability.
TheCropProtectionDivisionseekstohelpattainriceself-sufficiencyand
build a competitive rice economy through the generation, development and
promotion of pest management strategies, which are environment-friendly,
economical, sustainable and compatible with each other to address farmers
needs.

TheGeneticResourcesdivisionleadseffortsonconservationandmanagementof
rice genetic resources including improved varieties and elite breeding lines of
PhilRice,ricegeneticmaterialsfromotherbreedingandresearchinstitutes,aswellas
indigenous traditional Philippine cultivars. The division focuses its activities on
geneticdiversityresearchaswellasgermplasmcollection,conservation,management,
dissemination, and utilization in support to PhilRice rice breeding and development
activities.
TheRiceEngineeringandMechanizationDivisionisin-chargeofimprovingthe
national levelof farm mechanization and modernizes rice production and postharvest
operations. The division also strengthens the Institutes capacity to design, develop,
manufacture, and market farm machinery for rice production and postproduction
operationswhileconsideringtheneedsandconditionsofourricefarmers.
The Rice Chemistry and Food Science Division focuses on increasing the
productivity and profitability of rice farming systems by determining grain quality
characteristics of rice, developing technologies on other uses of rice and its byproducts and promoting these high-quality and value-added products to benefit
consumers/farmers and food manufacturers. The division also helps increase the
Institutes profitability by rendering quality analytical services in support of the
developmentofappropriateandbesttechnologiesforFilipinofarmers.
The Socioeconomics Division conducts research and policy studies to help
develop an efficient, competitive and sustainable rice industry, nurtured by sound
policyenvironment.ItsupportsPhilRicesfunctionofprovidingtimelyinformationto
theindustry.

TheDevelopmentCommunicationDivisionpromotesriceproduction
technologiesthroughthestrategicuseofcommunicationmediaandcurrent
information and communications technologies to educate and increase
awareness, access, and understanding of extension workers and farmers
and/orthegeneralpubliconricesciencefordevelopment(RS4D).
The Technology Management and Services Division promotes and
disseminateshigh impact rice technologies through area-based technology
promotion,andtrainingandeducationtohelpincreasetheproductivityand
incomeofricefarmers.Thedivisionalsoenhancescapacitiesofextension
workers and other change agents through retooling or rice science and
technologyupdates.
The Administrative Division offers quality support services to the
operations ofthe Institute particularly in human resources, property,
records, procurement of supplies, materials anf equipment, visitors and
facilities,trainingdormitory,printing,andmotorpoolservices.Thedivision
alsoensuresproperimplementationofallpolicies,procedures,andsystems
oftheInstitute.
The Finance Division provides financial and management support
services. The division has several units such as budget, accounting,
cashieringandbookkeeping.

The Information Systems Division provides the central direction


and leadership in network Infrastructure-related matters, geographic
informationsystem-remotesensingactivities,andotherinformationand
database systems development. The division also develops innovative
and efficient systems for gathering, storing, organizing, analyzing, and
accessing biophysical and socioeconomic information to support
agroecology-specific technology recommendations for rice and ricebasedfarmingandvalue-addingactivities.

The Seed Technology Division assesses seed quality parameters


including dormancy duration in all promising lines under the
distinctness, uniformity, and stability test. The division ensures high
seed quality seed for seed growers and farmers; monitors regular seed
quality testing on buffer seed and carry over seed lots of the previous
cropping;screensandevaluatespackagingmaterials,storageconditions,
seed treatment that will maintain seed quality longer; and conducts
compacttechnologydemonstrationofnewlyreleasedinbredandhybrid
varietiesincludingdifferenttypesofcropestablishment.

R&D Management
PhilRicesResearchandDevelopmentisheadedbythe
ExecutiveDirectorguidedbyitshighestpolicymakingbody,the
BoardofTrustees,whichhasthehighestposition.TheBureauof
AgriculturalResearch(BAR)andtheNationalRiceR&DTeam
fromthePhilippineCouncilforAgriculture,Aquatic,Forestry,and
NaturalResourcesResearchandDevelopment(PCAARRD)serve
asconsultativebodiesoftheExecutiveDirector.Underthe
ExecutiveDirectorarethetwoDeputyExecutiveDirectorsfor
ResearchandDevelopment,whodirectstheInstitute'sR&Dthrough
thedifferenttechnicaldivisions,headedbytheDivisionHeads;
programthrusts,bytheProgramLeaders;andbranchstationsand
R&DcentersbytheBranchManagers.Thethreeresearchareasare
interrelated.Theactivitiesinthedifferenttechnicaldivisions,branch
stations,andcentersarebasedonthedifferentprogramthrustsof
PhilRice.Likewise,activitiesofthemembersofthenationalrice
R&Dnetworkarealsobasedontheprogramthrusts.

C. R&D Spending
Most of the budget of PhilRice comes from the General Appropriations Act
(GAA) coming from the government, through the Department of Budget and
Management(DBM).ThisbudgetfromtheDBMisallocatedasfollows:
R&DActivities -40%
PersonnelServices-28%
CapitalOutlay -10%
Administration,finance,infrastructure-22%

The allocation of budget of PhilRice for projects is based on its research


priorities. The project leaders submit their project proposals to the program
leader. The proposals undergo internal review. Most of the time, the proposed
budgetarecutbythegovernmentbecauseoflimitedresources.
Although PhilRice, as government-owned and controled corporation (GOCC),
alsogeneratesfundsfromitsincome-generatingactivities,thesefundsaremostly
spentforcapitaloutlay.Hence,toaugmentitsbudgetneedsforR&Dactivities,
PhilRicealsoproposesprojectsfromexternalfunding.

D. Transparency in Governance
Fortransparency,PhilRicesR&Dprogramsandprojectsundergoquarterly
monitoringandreporting,annualprogramandprojectreviews,annual
nationalriceR&Dreviewplanningandconsultationworkshop,andinternal
andexternalreviewsaredone.

Quarterly Monitoring and Reporting.Thisisconductedineachprogram,


includingtheBranchStations.Themonitoringcoversphysicalandfinancial
aspectsoftheInstitutesprojects.PhilRiceimplementsasystemofreporting
ofaccomplishmentsformoreefficientprojectcontrol.
Annual Program and Project Reviews.ConductedbytheProgramand
ProjectLeadersattheendoftheyear,itaimstomonitortheprogressofthe
projectsandstudies.Thisdeterminesifthereareprojectsthatneedtobe
terminatedorre-aligned.Inthiscase,itgivestopmanagementcontinually
updatedinformationonthestatusoftheimplementationoftheprojectsand
disbursementsoffunds.

Annual National Rice R&D Review Planning and Consultation


Workshop.ThisisconductedeveryfirstweekofMarchandparticipatedby
about 300 rice scientists, researchers, policymakers, farmer-leaders,
extension personnels, and administrators from members of the network.
The annual meeting also strengthens the national rice R&D program by
validating research findings, reviewing and evaluating on-going and
proposedprojects.

External and Internal Reviews.External reviews are necessary in


assessing the programs as well as the Institutes achievements. The
assessmentofoutsideexpertsisgenerallyexpectedtoprovideanunbiased
viewoftheprogramsstrengthsandweaknesses.Likewise,internalreview
panelsareoccasionallycreatedtoassesstheimpactofspecificprojectsor
activities. Recommendations of the panel provide management feedbacks
notonlyimpactbutalsoonthefeasibilityofadoptingaspecificprojectfor
nationwideapplication.

In2013,PhilRicehasbeenawardedwiththePhilippineTransparency
Seal.

II.

Infrastructure

PhilRicehasmorethan100-hectareCentralExperimentStation
inNuevaEcija,whichhousesitsresearchlaboratoriesfor
geneticsandgeneticengineering,genemappingusingmolecular
markers,ricechemistryandfoodscience,agronomyandsoils,
plantphysiology,seedtechnology,plantpathology,entomology,
virology,andanalyticalservicesamongmanyothers.

Otherinfrastructuresaregreenhouses,FarmersTraining&
InformationCenter,genebank,aweatherstation,apowerhouse,
hostelandcanteen,trainingandexperimentalfarm,anaudiovisualeditingroom,sportsandgymfacilities,andaLANthat
interconnectsmorethan300computersoncampus,amongmany
others(PhilRice,2007).

III. Innovations

Patents
To date, PhilRice has 20 patents filed at the Intellectual Property
Office(IPO),fourwerealreadygrantedand16arepending,whileofthe
five utility models filed, one is already granted and four are pending.
Amongthesearethefollowing:1)SeedTreatingMachineissuedonApril
16, 2010 and will expire on December 13, 2024; 2) Portable Floating
Pump issued on April 16, 2010 and will expire on August 23, 2025; 3)
Seed Cleaner issued on January 14, 2011 and will expire on August 23,
2025; 4) Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Rice Tungro
SphericalVirus(RTSV)andRiceTungroBacilliformVirus(RTBV)issued
onFebruary17,2015andwillexpireonFebruary12,2028;and5)3-disc
PlowAttachmentforHandTractorandUseThereof[Utilitymodel]issued
onJanuary21,2015andwillexpireonOctober292017.IntermsofPlant
Variety Protection (PVP), of the 11 varieties and lines applied, all were
granted with PVP. One variety (Tubigan 7) applied in 2008 granted PVP
andwillexpireinDecember18.2028.Fivehybridparentallinesappliedin
2011werealsograntedPVP,allofwhichwillexpireonOctober25,2031.

Likewise,allthefivepromisinginbredlinesappliedin2012
werealsograntedPVP,allofwhichwillalsoexpireon
December7,2032.Moreover,alltheknowledgeproducts
producedbyPhilRicethroughitsmemberswerealso
copyrightedandcopiesofthesecreationswerealready
depositedattheNationalLibrary.

Todate,atotalofP5,386,837.70werealreadycollectedas
royaltiesfromthevariousIPscommercializedbyPhilRice.
Fromthisamount,atotalofP2,282,391.53weredisbursedto
variousIPholders.TheremainingP3,085,520.17are
maintainedinthetrustfundwhichcanbeusedtofundcuttingedgeresearchesproposedbyPhilRice.

Publications
PhilRiceshasregularissuesofricetechnicalbulletins,R&Dhighlights,
milestones,andquarterlymagazine.Italsopublishestrainingmanuals,and
brochuresthatfarmersmayuseindiagnosingplantpestsandproblems.
All these publications are accessible in print and on-line and are
depositedattheNationalLibrary.
Linkages
PhilRice has both local and international partners. Among its local
researchinstitution partners are the DOST-PCAARRD andthe DA-BAR,
which assist the Institutein planning, monitoring, and reviewing R&D
activities.PhilRice also coordinates the National Rice R&D Network
(NRRDN), a formal and functional structure of 57 strategically located
agenciescontinuouslysharingresponsibilityandresources,workingtoward
a common goal of sustained self-sufficiency in rice. Two of these are
designated as national research centers, seven as branch stations
representingthecountry'smajorrice-growingzones,14asregionalresearch
centers,and35ascooperatingstations.Withinthenetworkaregroupsthat
address specific R&D areas such as the rice varietal improvement,
technologypromotion,ricemechanization,andSeedNetwork.

Amongitsinternationalpartnersareworld-renownedresearch
anddonorinstitutionssuchastheAustralianCenterfor
InternationalAgricultureResearch(ACIAR),JapanInternational
CooperationAgency(JICA),JapanInternationalResearchCenter
forAgriculturalSciences(JIRCAS),InternationalAtomicEnergy
Agency(IAEA),InternationalRiceResearchInstitute(IRRI),
InternationalCropsResearchInstitutefortheSemi-AridTropics
(ICRISAT),JiangxiAcademyofAgriculturalSciences(JAAS),
andtheFoodandAgricultureOffice(FAO),amongmanyothers.

IV. Technological Readiness

PhilRicestechnologicalreadiness,whichdependsonits
technologycapacity,maybedescribedthroughitshuman
resources,humanresourcedevelopment,andR&Dfacilities.

Human Resources
TheInstituteemploysmorethan1,200individualswhoareexpertsin
variousdisciplines.Ithas369corestaff,fiftyeightpercentofwhich
belongtotheR&Dsector.Intermsofacademicachievements,34arePhD
holders,129holdMSdegrees,whileothersareBSgraduates.Mostofthe
PhDsobtainedtheirdegreesthroughfellowshipandscholarshipgrants
awardedbytheRockefellerFoundation,FordFoundation,USAID,
AusAID,Fulbright,Monbusho,andJICAamongmanyothers.PhilRice
alsotapshigh-caliber11researchfellowsandconsultantsforitsR&D
activities.Currently,PhilRicehassevencareerscientistrankholders;one
ScientistIIIandsixScientistI(PhilRice,2011).

AgreatnumberofPhilRicesscientistsandresearchersarerecipients
ofmajornationalawardssuchasTheOutstandingYoungMenAward
(TOYM),TheOutstandingWomenintheNationsService(TOWNS),
OutstandingYoungScientists(OYS)Awards,CivilServiceCommission
Pag-asaandDangalngBayanAwards,DAGawadSakaOutstanding
EmployeeforResearchAward,andtheJapaneseSocietyofAgriculture
MachineryMoriTechnicalAward,amongothers(PhilRice,2011).

Human Resource Development

PhilRicehasaResearchFellowship/CompetitiveGrantScheme.Itaimstoestablish
anddevelopresearchpartnershipsandcollaborationwithpromisingresearchersfrom
academicandotherresearchinstitutions.Inturn,PhilRicesupportstheseendeavorswith
researchfundingandprovidesotherformsofassistancetothesetalentedindividuals.
Theprovisionofresearchfellowships,grantsorassistantshipsisbasedonmeritandis
subjecttocompetitionamongqualifiedprofessors,researchersorPhD/MS/BSstudents
fromSUCsandotherresearchinstitutions.Invitationtosubmitqualityresearch
proposalsispostedatthePhilRicewebsiteandcommunicatedtopotentialcandidates
throughemail.

Thisprogramseeksto(1)supportoutstandingandpromisingR&Dpractitionersin
variousfieldsofriceR&D;(2)provideopportunitiestotalentedresearcherswhile
developingandfosteringmentoringandcollaboration;and(3)carryoutresearchthatis
ofmajorimportanceandwithpotentialhighimpacttoFilipinos.

Thisprogramalsoservesasanopportunityforyoungresearchersandstudentsto
gainvitalcareerorrelevantresearchexperiencewhilecontributingtoPhilRicesmission
ofhelpingthecountryattainriceself-sufficiencybyincreasingtheproductivityand
profitabilityofricefarmersthroughricescience.Theprogramalsofacilitatestheaccess
andexposureoftheseyoungtalentstomodernresearchfacilitiesandequipmentat
researchinstitutions,suchasIRRI,PhilRice,UPLB,andotherinstitutions.

R&D Facilities
PhilRice has adequate R&D facilities such as
laboratories to pursue basic, strategic, and applied
researches. It has the capability to pursue genetic
engineering studies, gene cloning, gene mapping,
gene isolation, cereal chemistry, food science, plant
physiology, virology, and analytical services, among
many others. On top of these laboratory facilities,
PhilRice also have greenhouses/screenhouses,
genebank, and other support facilities. All these
infrastructure facilities are all instrumental in the
conduct of the different R&D researches at PhilRice.
Compared with other government agencies,
PhilRice is at par when it comes to infrastructure
facilities. In fact it was regarded as world class in
terms of its infrastructure and facilities and its
international standards (ISOs).
In support of its technology catching-up process,

The PhilRice-based Crop Biotechnology Center implementsa


rationalized,effective,andefficientagriculturalbiotechnologyR&D
programfortheDepartmentofAgriculturewiththeendviewofgenerating
improvedagriculturaltechnologies,productivity,profitabilityand
enhancedcommercialpotential,value,andactivitiesforagriculturalcrops.

The Climate Change Center developsandextendsacomprehensive


andjudiciousunderstandingofthecurrentandfutureimpactsofclimate
change,includingvariabilityandextremesofthePhilippinericefarming
system,andtocushionitspossiblenegativeeffectsontheutilizationofrice
self-sufficiency.
The Applied Biology Center for the Rice Environment (ABCRE) is
anchoredonthestrongandurgentneedforradicalinnovationsinthericebasedfarmingenvironmentthatwillincreaseoutputandreduceexternal
inputsinrice-basedfarmingandrequireintegrationofdisciplinary
perspectivesfortheeffectiveandsystematicutilizationofexisting
knowledgeinappliedbiology.PhilRicerecognizesthelimitationsofthe
traditionaldiscipline-baseddivisionsintermsofphysicalandtechnical
manpowerresourcesforplanningandimplementingneededresearchand
developmentactivitiesinAppliedBiology.

Assuch,establishmentofABCREisexpectedtoenhance
interdisciplinaryresearchcapabilityinappliedbiology,initiallyby
drawingneededexpertiseavailablefromthetraditional
disciplinarydivisionsavailableatPhilRice(soilscience,
agronomy,plantphysiology,plantpathology,entomology,
chemistry,agriculturalengineering,agriculturaleconomics,etc.)
andfromcollaboratingDAagencies,SCUs,andprivatesector.

ABCREaimstoexplore,advance,andutilizeexistingknowledge
inappliedbiologyinriceenvironmentanddevelopinnovations
thatwillincreaseoutputandreduceexternalinputsinricefarming
andnon-riceenterprises.Itwilldrawexpertisefromvariousfields
ofappliedbiologyandagricultureparticularlyplantnutrition,plant
physiology,cropprotection,plantphysiology,andsoilscience,
amongothers. Itwillalsoharnessskillsandmodernfacilities
availableinDA-PhilRiceandwillalsoworkcloselywithother
scientistsacrosstheR&Dnetwork.

ICT Infrastructure
PhilRicehasawell-establishedICTfacilities.ItsLANinterconnectsmorethan300
computersoncampus.TheInstitutealsomaintainsawebmailthatfacilitatesthe
disseminationandsharingofvariousinformationsuchasadministrativeorders,R&D
reports,memos,etc.
V. Business Sophistication

Programs
SincePhilRicestarteditsfulloperationin1987,ithastakentheleadinriceR&D.It
hasmadeavailableimportanttechnologiesandinformationthatprovidestrongbackboneto
thecountrysriceindustry.SuchimpactofPhilRicecanbeattributedtothesuccessofthe
differentR&Dprogramstheyimplemented(PhilRice,1998).
First R&D Programs (1987-1998).Atthestartofitsoperation,PhilRicemade
operationaleightmultidisciplinaryprogramswhichishandledbyspecificdivisions,
namely:ricevarietalimprovement(PlantBreedingandBiotechnologyDivision),planting
andfertilizermanagement,andrice-basedfarmingsystems(AgronomyandSoilsDivision),
integratedpestmanagement(CropProtectionDivision),riceengineeringandmechanization
(RiceEngineeringandMechanizationDivision),ricechemistryandfoodscience(Rice
ChemistryandFoodScienceDivision),socialscienceandpolicyresearch(Socio-economic
Division),andtechnologypromotion(Communication,Training,Technology
Demonstration,andSeedProductionandHealthDivisions)(Figure2).Viableinformation
andtechnologiesfromthefirstsevenprogramsconvergedattechnologypromotionfor
packaginganddissemination(PhilRice,1998).

Second R&D Programs (1999-2001).Tocopewithtechnologicalchallengesandinnovations


intheindustry,thepreviousPhilRiceR&Dstructurewasreorientedandtransformedin
1998intoaninterdisciplinarystructure.Theeightlocation-specific,ecosystem-basedand
problem-specificprogramsarethetransplantedanddirect-seededirrigatedlowlandrice,
hybridrice,riceforadverseenvironments,rice-basedfarmingsystems,riceandrice-based
products,policyresearchandadvocacy,andtechnologypromotion(Figure3).Each
programthrustcontributestotheattainmentofthegoalsofPhilRiceandofthe
government(PhilRice,2001)

Third R&D Programs (2002-2010).ThisR&Dstructuretransferstherice-based


productstoadivisionbasedprogramwhilemergingthericeforadverse
environmentprogramswiththerice-basedfarmingsystemsprograms.The
changes,streamlinedtheactivities,whichenhancesfocusingofmajorthrusts,
maximizationofresourcesbothhuman,andinfrastructure,andeffective
monitoring,coveringfewerprograms,projects,andstudies.Furthermore,the
programsfocusonsubjectorareaswithhighpossibleimpactandwhichbenefit
largenumbersoffarmers(PhilRice,2010).

Fourprograms,transplantedirrigatedlowlandrice,directseededrice,hybrid
riceandrice-basedfarmingsystemsforadverseenvironment,cutsacrossDivisions
whichdevelopsandpackageslocationandproblemspecifictechnologies.Thissetupenhancesinter-disciplinecollaboration,thuspromotingteamapproachin
developingtechnology.Theremainingtwoprograms,technologypromotionand
policyresearchandadvocacycutacrossthefourR&Dprogramsmentionedabove.
Theseprogramsindulgedinthepromotionoftechnologyverifiedinthefarmers'
fieldandpolicyadvocacyrelatedtoissuesbesettingthericeindustry(Figure4).

Fourth R&D Programs (2011-2013).In2011,PhilRiceimplementedfiveRiceR&D


programsaddressingthreestrategicgoals:1)tohelpattainnationalriceselfsufficiencyby2013andensureitssustainability,2)tocontributeinreducingthe
incidenceofpovertyandmalnutrition,and3)toachievecompetitivenessinrice
scienceandtechnology.Theyweredefined,namely:Program1:Developing
TechnologiestoBreaktheLowYieldBarriersinRainfed,Upland,&Other
AdverseRiceEnvironments;Program2:DevelopingTechnologiestoSurpassthe
DrySeasonIrrigatedLowlandRiceYieldPlateau;Program3:NaturalProducts
&Value-AddingSystemsDevelopment;Program4:ImpactEvaluation,Policy
Research,andAdvocacy,andProgram5:DevelopmentandPackagingof
Location-SpecificRiceTechnologiesforIrrigated,Rainfed,andUplandAreas.
ResultsoftheresearchprogramswillconvergeinProgram5(PhilRice,2013).To
expeditethepromotionanddisseminationofprogramoutputsarethechannelsof
ICT,training,andknowledgeproductswhicharehandledbytheDevelopment
Communication(DevComm),TechnologyManagementandServices(TMS),and
InformationSystems(ISD)Divisions.TogetherwiththeSocioeconomics
Division,theybuildthecapacityofdevelopmentworkersanddostrategic
advocacy,behavioral/actionresearch,andknowledgemanagement.Theresearch
divisions/centershandlediscipline-basedactivitiesinsupportoftheresearch
programs.CuttingacrossR,D&Eprogramsarestation-basedprojectsthat
addresslocation-specificproblemsintheareasofoperationsofthebranch
stations(Figure5).

The New R&D Programs (2014-2018).Topursueamorefocused,efficient,


andappropriateR&Defforts,PhilRicehasdevelopeditsStrategicPlanfor2010
2020withthreemaingoals:(1)helpinattainingnationalriceself-sufficiencyby
2013andinsustainingitin2014andbeyond;(2)contributeinreducingthe
incidenceofpovertyandmalnutrition;and(3)achievingcompetitivenessinrice
scienceandtechnology.ThesegoalsarealignedwiththePhilippineFoodStaples
SufficiencyProgram(FSSP,2011-2016),theUNMillenniumDevelopmentGoals,
PhilippineDevelopmentPlan(PDP),theAgricultureandFisheryModernization
Act(AFMA),andinitiativesofcivilsocietyorganizations(CSOs).

Toachievethesegoals,majorprogramsandprojectsfor20112016were
conceptualizedanddevelopedin2010,andimplementedin2011.AfteranR&D
reviewinDecember2012,theprogramswererecastintorelevantandresponsive
themes,whichhaveundergonereview,consultationandcritiquingduringthe
PhilRiceBoardofTrusteesmeetingonMarch4,2013andthequarterlymeetingof
theNAFCSub-CommitteeonCereals(composedofvariousprivate,government
andnon-governmentorganizationsinthericeandcornsub-sector)onMarch15,
2013.Therecastprogramswaspartiallyimplementedin2013andwasfully
implementedstarting2014(Figure6).

Heinbergaverredthatweneedamorefundamentalreformof
agriculturethananythingwehavehadbeforetogettotheheart
ofthecrisis,andthesolutionisanagricultureandfoodsystem
thatdoesnotrequirefossilfuels.
Thisprogramshalllaythefoundationforandformulatescience
andtechnology-basedsolutionstowardafossil-fuelfreerice-based
agricultureinthePhilippines.Itshallbecomposedofthefollowing
projects:

1)Developmentofalternative,renewable,diversifiedand
decentralizedenergyresourcesystemsforandfromrice-based
agriculture.
2)Improvingtheenergyresourceuseefficiencyinrice-based
farming.
3)Developmentoflowexternalenergyinputsinrice-based
farming.

FollowingarePhilRicesprograms/projectsfor20142018.
A. Rice R&D Programs for Technology/Product Development
PhilRice shall continue to develop technologies, and generate information and other
productsthatcanexpandriceyieldgrowthoverthemediumterm,sustainactivitiesthatwill
helptonarrowdownthegapbetweenactualfarmyieldsandbestpracticeyields,andcreate
opportunitiesforpoorfarmersandenablethemtoimprovetheirfarmingpracticesthrough
appropriatediversifiedandintegratedrice-basedagri-biosystems,andparticipateinmarkets
throughhigh-valuerice-basedfarmproduceorprocessedproductsentrepreneurship.
Program 1: Coping with Climate Change
Higher risks and greater uncertainty owing to climate change in a highly vulnerable
country like ours continue to daunt the Filipino rice farmer. Confronted with spiraling
pricesanddwindlingsupplyoffarminputs,suchasfossilfuel,fertilizers,irrigationwater,
and even human labor, the future of Philippine rice-based agriculture indeed looks grim.
The incessantly rising population and continuing conversion of prime rice lands for other
purposesfurtherposeanenormouschallengeofproducingmorefoodfromsmallerandless
fertile,evenmarginallands.Changesinprecipitation,increaseintemperature,andsealevel
riseareamongtheprojectedimpactsofclimatechangewhichwillgreatlyaffectagriculture,
the prime source of food security in the country. Agriculture is very sensitive to climate
change, which will exacerbate the annual damage in the sector. Rice production in the
Philippines has been projected to decline starting in 2020 by as much as 75% from the
current level unless the resiliency and flexibility of rice farming communities in facing
climate change is addressed through effective and efficient mitigation and adaptation
measures(ADB,ManilaTimes2009).

Tocopewithclimatechange,thereisaneedtotransform
Philippinericeagricultureintoaclimate-resilientandenergyefficientsystem.Theresilienceandsustainabilityofourrice
productionsystemmustbeintensified,whilemakingitmore
efficientintheuseofenergy,waterandnutrients.Thiscanbedone
bycombiningrapidadvancesinknowledgeofplantgeneticsand
theadvancedapproachestoagronomicmanagementtodeliverthe
requiredsustainableintensificationinproductivity.Theprogram
shallconsistofthefollowingcomponents:
1)Enhancementoftheclimatechangeadaptivecapacityofricebasedfarmingsystems.
2)Ensuringhouseholdfoodandincomesecurityinclimate
changevulnerableareas.
3)Generationandmanagementofclimatechange-related
knowledgeandinformation

Program 2: Farming Without Fossil Energy


Despite a near tripling of world oil prices, non-OPEC production, which
accounts for 60% of world output, hasn't increased significantly since 2004. And
many of those same experts, as well as some major oil companies, don't see it
increasing againever, declared Richard Kerr in his article Peak Oil Production
MayAlreadyBeHere,publishedinScience,March25,2011issue.

In his essay published on Resilience (http://www.resilience.org) and titled


Whatwillweeatastheoilrunsout,PostCarbonInstituteseniorfellowRichard
Heinberglaidoutfourdilemmasthatcompriseanunprecedentedlywide-scopedcrisis
thatfossilfuel-dependentglobalagricultureandfoodsystemfaces:1)directimpacts
on agriculture of higher oil prices are increased costs of tractor fuel, agricultural
fertilizersandchemicals,andthetransportoffarminputsandoutputs;2)anindirect
consequenceofhighoilprices,theincreaseddemandforbiofuels,whichisresulting
infarmlandbeingturnedfromfoodproductiontofuelproduction,makingfoodmore
costly,3)impactsofclimatechangeandextremeweathereventscausedbyfuel-based
greenhouse gas emissions, and 4) degradation or loss of basic natural resources,
principallytopsoilandfreshwatersupplies,asaresultofhighratesandunsustainable
methodsofproductionstimulatedbydecadesofcheapenergy.

Program 3: High-Value Products from Rice and Its Environment

isasadrealityfortherice-basedfarminghouseholdsinthecountry.Itis
alsonotuncommonthatmostoftheirincomeisdevotedtofoodexpenses.
Itisthereforeimportanttoempowerfarmingcommunitiesnotonlyto
improvetheirpractices,reducefarmingcost,andincreasethevalueof
theirproduce,butalsotoexploreadditionalsourcesofincomefrom
productionofnon-traditionalrawmaterials,suchasalgaeandsinglecell
proteins,inordertoimprovetheireconomiccondition.
Theprogramwillgeneratehigh-valueproductsfromthericeenvironment
tohelpincreasetheincomeofrice-basedfarmingcommunities.Valueaddingsystemswillbedeveloped,evaluatedandrefinedtoincreasethe
valueandprofitabilityofricefarmingandprocessingofnewproductsas
anenterprise.Theprogramconsistsofthefollowingcomponents:1)Highvaluericegrain,2)High-valueproductsfromthericegrainandotherparts
ofthericeplant,and3)Beneficialorganismsinthericeenvironment.

Program 4. Intensified Rice-Based Agri-Bio Systems


The productivity and income of many small rice farmers remain low
because of the declining profitability of growing mono-crop rice. With rice
yieldsreachingaplateauandtheincreasingcostoflaborandotherinputs,the
income of farmers has decreased tremendously. Results of analysis of the
householdpovertyandfoodsecurityimpactinrelationtotheincomederived
fromrice-basedfarmingvis--vishouseholdbasicneedsandfoodexpenditure
showthatruralincomesarerelativelylow.
TheannualnetincomederivedfromgrowingriceinirrigatedareasisPhp
45,000.00perhectarein2012(BAS2013),whichislessthanhalftheannual
poverty threshold income of Php 94, 675.00 in 2012 (NSCB 2014). Indeed,
thismakesitdifficultforthefarmfamilytomeettheirfoodrequirements.This
impliesthecrucialimportanceofotherfarmingcomponentssuchasvegetables
andothercrops,fish,andlivestockinaugmentingfarmingincomeinorderthat
necessaryfoodandnon-foodrequirementsaremet.Thereisthereforeaneed
to promote diversified and integrated farming systems to generate incomes
above the poverty threshold. More importantly, there is a need to integrate
diversificationstrategiesinthenationalriceprogramtoachieveameaningful
impactintermsofincreasinghouseholdincomeandproductivityofrice-based
farmers.

Hence,itiscriticaltoidentifyandevaluateclimateadaptationstrategies
andintroduceinnovativemeasuresforenhancingresilienceoffoodsystems
andnaturalsystemsincludingadaptationofagricultural-biological(agri-bio)
productionsystems,buildingadaptivecapacityandclimateresilienceofall
stakeholders, and sustaining collaboration and partnership among
stakeholdersinthecountryside.

The intensified rice-based agri-bio systems model (Palayamanan Plus)


is a community- or village-scale model aimed to increase income by
purposive integration of certain farming components that will enhance rice
and rice-basedcrops productivity, profitability and sustainability, cost
reduction, value-adding through product processing and utilization ricebiomassandmechanization.Anappropriateagri-biosystemsmodelpiloted
at each PhilRice station is envisioned to spin-off into community
agribusinessactivitiesthatcangenerateacalculatedannualincomeofPhp1
millionperhectarefromallproductionandeconomicactivitiestogenerate
the desired social and economic impact and progress. The program shall
consistofthefollowingprojects:
Agri-biosystems mapping and scoping; Assessment of agri-biosystems
models;andPilotimplementationofagri-biosystemsmodels

Program 5. FutureRice
RicefarminginthePhilippineswillfaceseveralchallengesinthefuture.Withavery
limitedirrigatedareaofonly2millionhectares,itmustproduce18millionmetrictonsof
ricetofeedanestimated95millionFilipinosin2012.Theremaining1.2millionhectares
arewithoutirrigationanddependonseasonalrains.Theimpactofclimatechangehasalso
brought further destruction of remaining irrigation systems, and in some areas, much
floodingandlandslideduetoshiftincyclonepath.Highpopulationgrowthrateof2.4%
and rapid urbanization contribute to further reduction of prime agricultural land in the
Philippines.
ThechallengeforR&Distoproducemorefoodoutputfromthesameunitofland,
andatthesametime,protectthesoilandtheenvironmentfromfurtherdegradationdueto
intensive crop cultivation. This challenge is compounded the dwindling supply, and
increasingcostsofpetroleumbasedproductsforfarmfuel,pesticides,andfertilizers.The
increasingproductioncostsatthefarmlevelareerodingpotentialincomeandprofitsof
farmers.
Given this emerging environment, there is a need to develop and test new crop
management innovations that will promote self-sufficiency, sustainability and
competitiveness in the 21st century. We need to revolutionize and transform our food
production and delivery system through the application of engineering, information
technology,andbiotechnology.Thismeansthatwehavetoupgradetheskillsofextension
agentsandfarmersongreen,practical,andsmartfarming.Finally,theseeffortsmustact
as catalysts to transform farming communities into ecologically vibrant and competitive
economies.

Keyprogramcomponentsareasfollows:
Rice Innovation Center.Thiscomponentwillinventory
alllocalandglobaltechnologyonclean,greenandsmart
farminginnovations,whichcanbemodifiedorlocalized
(adaptiveandcreativeresearch)inordertoreducethetime
andcostofdevelopment.Thiswillmakeitpossiblefor
innovationstobecomeavailableinlessthan3yearsinsteadof
10years.Thecenterwilldevelopaknowledgebaseofall
relevantinnovationsdevelopedlocallyandabroad,collecting
relevantliteraturefromjournals,andestablishlinkageswith
concernedagencies,globalnetworks,andagribusiness
corporations.Thecenterwilldevelopaclearinghouseof
appropriatetechnologiesandhelpdeveloplocalprototypesof
selectedinnovationsfortesting,application,andpublic
dissemination.

Smart Rice Farms.Thiscomponentwilldemonstratethe


elementsofgreen,practicalandsmartricefarminginsmall5hectarefarmsinseveralagroclimaticlocationsofthecountry.This
willdemonstratethe10-5ricetechnology,whereahighyieldof
10tons/hacanbeproducedwithacostofP5/kg.Thisdemonstration
farmwillbecomeatestbedoflocalandglobalinnovationsthatwe
identifiedattheInnovationCenterforfurthertestingandapplication
innear-realfarmingconditions.Thekeyfeaturesofthefarminvolve
organicfarming,lowtillage,nutrientrecycling,energyrecycling,
farmmechanization,andknowledge-basedcropmanagement.
Alternativeenergysourceswillbeusedtopowerfarmimplements.
Informationandcommunicationstechnologywillbeusedtoprovide
timelyandrelevantinformationtoguideon-farmcropmanagement
decisions.Theperformanceoftheseinnovationsinrealfield
conditionswillbemonitoredandevaluatedfortheirreleasetothe
farmingcommunity.Thefarmswillalsoserveaspracticaltraining
groundforparticipantsoftheRiceAcademy

Rice Academy.Thiscomponentwilldevelopanewlearningcurriculumthat
will prepare a new generation of agricultural practitioners, extension agents and
farmerleaderstomeetthedemandsofricefarminginthefuture.Thiswillinclude
an understanding of the principles and concepts of green, practical and smart
farming; climate change; renewable alternative energy and sources; nutrient
cycling; and ecological biodiversity. This will require of the new generation of
farmersaworkingknowledgeoffarmmechanization,informationandtechnology
tools and platforms, agro-ecology, and biotechnology. Digital content will be
madeaccessibleusingnewgenerationsofICTssuchastablets,smartphones,and
SMS.
Farmer Cyber Community. This component will identify
farming communities that are receptive to clean, green, and smart farming
innovations.InnovationsthatwereidentifiedbytheRiceInnovationCentre,and
tested in the Smart Farms and Rice Academy, will be applied in real-world
condition among members of the rice farming community. Members of the
farmingcommunitymayvisittheSmartFarmsandmayattendtheRiceAcademy.
Farmer-based ICTsystems will be made available to the farming community to
give them access to online content on green, practical and smart technologies.
Technical and advisory services will be provided to the communities through
various knowledge services such as mobile ICT facilities and farmers text
advisories.Communitieswillbeencouragedtodevelopcleanandgreenproducts
relatedtocrops,alternativefuels,organicfertilizers,andfeedsforlivestockand
fish.

Project Management and Support Communication.


Thiscomponentwillprovidetheprojectmanagementsupport
intermsofseekinggrantsandfundingfortheproject
components;coordinationwithunitsoftheInstitute;
collaborationwithexternalpartnersandthefarming
community.Thiscomponentwillalsoprovidelogistical
supportfortheefficientoperationoftheprogram;conduct
publicawarenessonthefutureofricefarmingandtheimpact
ofclimatechange,thepotentialsofalternativeenergysources,
andapplicationofinformationandcommunications
technologyinagriculture.Thisunitshallestablishand
maintainaprojectwebsite,documenttheprojectactivitiesand
processesinpublicationsandvideoclips,andprovide
feedbackthroughsocialmedia,suchasFacebook,Twitter,
Instagram,andSMS.

B.

Special Program

Rural Transformation and Inclusive Growth Through PhilRice Stations as


Nucleus Estates.
Thisprogramseekstocatalyzeruraltransformationandachieveinclusive
growthinrice-basedfarmingcommunitiesbyempoweringPhilRiceStationsas
NucleusEstates.Specificallyitwillsustainablyincreaseproductivityand
incomeatthestationsandadjoiningcommunities;strengthenresilienceto
climatechangeandvariability;andreduceagriculturescontributiontoclimate
change.

TheprogramexpectstodevelopviableIRBASenterprisemodelsatPhilRice
CESandbranchstationswithanannualgrossincomefromoperationsofupto
Php1M/ha/yrbythethirdyearofoperation.Italsoexpectstodevelopspin-off
agri-biotechnoenterprise&businessopportunitiesforsurrounding
communitieswithatleast1similarviablenucleusestate;multi-sector
partnershipsforruraltransformationanddevelopment;andinformation
campaigns&policyadvocaciesforreplicationofnucleusestatesinthecountry.

C. Basic and Applied Rice R&D Projects


D. Division-based Basic and Upstream Rice Research
InsupportoftheimplementationoftheRiceR&Dprograms,
PhilRiceisimplementingbasicandupstreamresearchactivities
throughitsR&Ddivisions:
Plant Breeding and Biotechnology focusesonenhancinggenetic
variabilityofpotentialricevarieties/elitelines;developingbreeding
materialswithyield-enhancing,stabilizingandvalue-addingtraits
foruseasparentsinhybridizationprogramsand/ordirectutilization
asvarieties;characterizingimportantgermplasmandmaking
availablenucleusseedsforcommercialcultivation.Itseeksto
ensurestableandsustainablericeproductionthroughthe
developmentofhigh-yielding,pestandabioticstress-resistantand
goodgrainqualityricevarietiessuitabletomajorricegrowing
ecosystems.

Agronomy, Soils, and Plant Physiology leadsresearcheffortsto


evaluate,refine,andfacilitatethedeliveryofimprovedsoil,nutrient,
andwatermanagementpracticestoenhancesoilqualityand
profitabilityandplantresourceuseefficiency.
Crop Protection seekstohelpattainriceself-sufficiencyandbuild
acompetitivericeeconomythroughthegeneration,development,and
promotionofpestmanagementstrategies,whichareenvironmentfriendly,economical,sustainable,andcompatiblewitheachotherto
addressfarmers'needs.Italsoassistsbreedersinscreeningpotential
varietiesforinsectanddiseaseresistance.
Genetic Resources carriesoutgermplasmcollection,conservation,
management,disseminationandutilization.Itensuresavailabilityof
fullycharacterizedgermplasmtoriceplantbreedersandresearchers.It
alsoconductsresearchongeneticdiversity.
Rice Engineering and Mechanization developsmachinesand
toolstoincreasethenationalleveloffarmmechanizationand
modernizericeproductionandpostharvestoperationstoincreasefarm
efficiencyandproductivity.

Rice Chemistry and Food Science focusesonincreasingtheproductivity


andprofitabilityofricefarmingsystemsbydetermininggrainquality
characteristicsofrice;developingtechnologiesonotherusesofriceandits
by-products;andpromotingthesehigh-qualityandvalue-addedproductsto
benefitconsumers/farmersandfoodmanufacturers.
Seed Technology performsbasicstudiesonseedbiologyandphysiology,
healthandpathology,purityandqualitycontrol,production,preservation
andstorage,coating/treatmentandmechanicalseeding.Italsoensuresthat
high-qualityseedsareavailabletofarmers/stakeholders,andhelpsmake
ricefarmingaprofitablebusinessbydevelopingcost-effectiveand
environment-friendlyriceseedtechnologies.Inaddition,itrunsand
maintainsalabandfacilityforseedhealthandqualitytestingasprescribed
intheinternationalseedtestingrulesbyISTA.
Socioeconomics conductsresearchandpolicystudiestohelpdevelopan
efficient,competitive;andsustainablericeindustry,nurturedbysound
policyenvironments.ItsupportsPhilRicesfunctionofprovidingtimely
informationtotheindustry.

Technology Management and Services promotes/disseminates


high-impactricetechnologiesthrougharea-basedtechnology
promotion,andtrainingandeducationtohelpincreasetheproductivity
andincomeofricefarmers.Likewise,itenhancescapacitiesof
extensionworkersandotherchangeagentsthroughretoolingorrice
scienceandtechnologyupdates.
Development Communication promotesricesciencefor
sustainabledevelopmentthroughstrategicuseofcommunication
media.Itplaysamajorandsignificantpartincommunicatingthe
results/productsofricescienceeffectively,particularlytotheintended
users.
Information Systems and Data Management willinteractively
andcollaborativelycatertothedatainformationneedsofrice
stakeholders.TheintegrationofinformationsystemswiththericeR&D
willhelptosystematicallyplan,schedule,share,anddocumentkey
activitiesthatsupportthedevelopmentofriceproductiontechnologies,
farmequipment, technology transfer, and the production
of high-quality rice varieties.

E. Area-Based Rice R&D Projects


CuttingacrossR&Dprogramsarestation-basedprojectsthataddress
location-specificproblemsinareasofoperationsofPhilRiceBatac,
Isabela,LosBaos,Bicol,Negros,Midsayap,andAgusanbranchstations.
PhilRiceBatacservesasthenucleusorcorefordevelopmentand
improvementofintensifiedrice-basedagri-biosystems(IRBAS)
technologiesandenterprisesinsemi-aridareasandotherenvironmentsin
NorthwesternLuzon.Itshallalsodeveloptechnologiesandmanagement
optionsforriceandrice-basedcropsintherainfedanddrought-prone
environments,suchaswaterharvesting,conservationandmanagement,
andmechanizedrice-basedfarmproductionandpostproductionoperations.

PhilRiceIsabelafocusesondevelopmentofIRBAStechnology
packagesandenterprisesforNortheasternLuzonthatalsofeaturesthe
high-yieldingyetlow-cost10-5(10tonsperhectareatPhp5.00perkg
palayunitproductioncost)technologysystemanchoredonhybridrice.

PhilRice Los Baos,inadditiontobeingtheInstitutesprincipal


office,servesasnucleusfordevelopingandradiatingIRBAS
technologyandenterprisesystemsintheCalabarzonregion(Region
IV-A).ItspartnershipwithIRRIandhost,UPLBwillalsofocuson
basicresearchstudiesinplantbreeding,cropprotection,agronomyand
soils,ricechemistryandfoodscienceforthegenerationofnew
productsoutofinvention,innovationordiscovery.Thestationalso
shalloverseethedevelopmentofPhilRice Mindoro satellitestationas
theIRBASnucleusestatemodelfortheentireMindoroIsland.
PhilRice Bicol developsandpromotesIRBAStechnology
packagesandenterprisesystemsfortheBicolRegionwithspecial
focusonclimatechangeadaptationandresilience.Itwillalsoshepherd
thePhilRice Samar satellitestationwhichwillbedevelopedasthe
IRBAS-focusednucleustospurruraltransformationanddevelopment
andattaininclusivegrowthintheentireSamarIsland.
PhilRice Negros pilot-tests,fine-tunesandradiatesfossilfuel-free
IRBAStechnologypackagesandenterprisesforWesternVisayas,even
asitisbeingtransformedintoanorganicrice-basedintegratedand
diversifiedproductdevelopmentcenter.

PhilRiceAgusanistheInstitutesIRBASnucleusestatefor
NorthernMindanao.SimilartoPhilRiceBicol,itwillalsorefineand
promoteIRBAStechnologiesandenterprisestoCARAGA
communitiesvulnerabletoadverseeffectsofclimatechange.
Moreover,itwillalsoaddresschallenges,suchasnutrient-deficientand
problemsoilsandlowsolarradiationintheareabecauseoffrequent
rainfall.ItalsooverseesthePhilRice CMU fieldstationandoffice
locatedinsidetheCentralMindanoUniversitycampusinMaramag,
Bukidnon,where100hectareshavebeenmadeavailablebyCMUto
PhilRiceforriceseedproductionandIRBAStechnologyandenterprise
developmentandpromotioninCentralMindanao.Inaddition,
PhilRiceAgusanalsoinitiallysupervisesthedevelopmentofthe
PhilRiceZamboangasatellitestationintotheIRBASnucleusestate
modelfortheZamboangaPeninsula.
PhilRiceMidsayapisbeingtransformedtobetheIRBASnucleus
estatemodelforSouthernMindanao,withfocusonecological
engineeringandintegratedpestmanagementpracticesbecauseofthe
prevalenceofpestsofriceandothercropswithintheregion

Technologies Developed by PhilRice


PhilRicestechnologiesincludevarieties,machineries,and
diagnostictools.
Varieties.Todate,hundredsofhigh-yieldingvarietieswerealready
developedforvariousecosystemssuchasirrigatedlowland,rainfed,
upland,saline-proneareas,frought-proneareas,submergedareas,and
cool-elevatedareas.Theseweredevelopedboththroughconventional
andnon-conventionalmethods.

Machines. PhilRicealsodevelopedmachinesforlandpreparation
suchaslaboytiller,micro-tiller,ride-onattachmentforhandtractor;
andforcropestablishmentsuchasplasticdrumseeder.Toaddressthe
highcostoffuelenergy,environment-friendlyandleantechnologies
werealsodevelopedsuchaswindpumpirrigationsystem,ricehusk
gasifier,enginesystems,andfloatingpump.Likewise,toaddressthe
issuesoflaborscarcityinsomeareas,machinesforharvestingwere
alsodeveloped,suchasthericemini-combinerotaryreaper.Other
post-harvestmachinesandtechnologieswerealsodeveloped,suchas
theseedcleaner,flat-beddryers,andthesaclabforseedstorage.

Diagnostic Tools
Diagnostictoolswerealsodevelopedtoaidfarmersintheir
decision-making.Normally,farmersjustapplyNitrogen
fertilizersaccordingtotheirownperception.Hence,PhilRice
developedtheleafcolorchart(LCC)todetermineNitrogen
fertilizerneedsoftheplants.Likewise,theMinusOne
ElementTechnique(MOET)wasdevelopedtodeterminethe
NitrogenStatusofthesoil.

Issues Addressed by PhilRice


Being the leading government agency in the field of Rice Research
andDevelopmentPhilriceisaddressingseveralissues:
I. Socio-Economic Issues.
a.Limitedskillsandknowledgeoffarmerstomaketheproperdecisionsto
increasetheiryieldsresultingtodecreaseinincome.Philricearesettingup
technology demonstration farms all over the country introducing
technologies on balanced fertilization, integrated pest management and
hybridriceproduction.Thisinterventionaimstomaximizeyieldlevelsof
farmerstherebyincreasingprofitability.

b. Lack of effective irrigation system and availability of modern


machineriesaffectingthericeyield.Thegovernmentthroughtheexpertise
of Philrice is coming out with improved irrigation systems and advanced
machineriesatacostaffordabletofarmers.

c.Lackofcreditfacilitiesresultingtofarmersinabilityto
acquireprocessingandstoragefacilitiesforcingthemtoselltheir
harvestearlyatalowerprice.Philrice,throughitsdevelopment
group,isassistingthefarmerstoaccesscreditbyactingasthe
linkbetweenthefinancinginstitutionsandthefarmers.
d.Theneedforsocialcohesionandsolidarityoffarmers.The
farmersneedtobeorganizedinordertoimprovetheirwellbeing
byunitingandfightingagainstexclusionandmarginalization.
Theymusthaveacommongoal,actingasonesothatthey
cannotbeexploitedbytradersandmiddlemenandcouldbeable
tocommandbetterpricefortheircrops.ThePhilricethroughits
extensionarmishelpingthefarmersalongthisgoalbydoing
extensioneducationlikecapacitybuilding(training,seminars
etc)thatwillleadtoempowermentofthefarmers.

II. Environmental issues.


a.Unpredictableweatherpatternsandextremeweatherconditions
characterizedbyprolongdraught(elnino)andexcessiverainfalland
floodingattributedtoclimatechange.ToaddresstheseissuesaClimate
ChangeCenterwasestablishedatPhilricetocomprehendandunderstand
theimpactsofclimatechangeinthePhilippineRiceFarmingSystem.
Someoftheprojectsundertakentomitigateoradapttoclimatechange:
developingricevarietiesresistanttosoilsalinity,drought,water
submergenceetc.;minimizinggreenhousegasemissionsinriceproduction
andprocessesbyaddressingtheeffectsofpestpressuresandtoomuch
usedofnitrogenfertilizer.

b.Lowtechnologyadoption.Itwasnotedthatdespiteofalltheeffortsto
increase the productivity and profitability of the farmers, technologies
developed and disseminated are partially or not adopted at all by the
farmers. Philrice is looking at this problem in two ways internally and
externally.TheagencyislookingatthelinkageofResearchandExtension.
Theproblemmightbethewaythetechnologiesdevelopedbytheresearch
group are being disseminated by the extension group. Since the linkage
between Research and Extension is weak a gap might be created in the
transition from of technologies from research to extension which is
creating a problem with technology diffusion and adoption. Philrice is
looking to fill the gap between Research and Extension Linkage (REL).
Externally Philrice is looking for effective linkages among research,
extensionandfarmers.Technologiestobeeffectiveingeneratingeconomic
growthandinaddressingsocialchangemustbeacceptedandadoptedby
theultimateusers.Philriceistryingtoensurethatallinformationarebeing
given and trying to determine the problems to guide the agency on what
technologies to develop and increase acceptance and adoption of the
technologies. Its communication division is coming out with flipcharts,
modules, instructional materials, learning exercises etc to be used by
extensionworkersintrainingthefarmers.

c.Availabilityandallocationofresources.Aswithothergovernment
agenciesthereisalsotherecurringissueonfundingorresource
allocation.ItiswellknownthatbudgetofPhilriceforR&Dis
insufficientconsideringtheareaofitsresponsibility.Philriceis
continuouslyestablishinglinkageswithothercountries,international
agencies,andotherresearchinstitutionstosecurefunding,aids,
grantsandresearchcollaborationstheAsianRiceBiotechnology
Network(ARBN),RiceGenomeProgramofJapan(JRGP)andwith
othercountrieslikeAustralia,USA,Germanyetc.Andwiththe
separationofresearchanddevelopment,withdevelopmentmerged
withextensionfundingbecamemoreproblematicwiththeboth
researchanddevelopmentaskingforhigherfundingasseparate
agencies.Thisseparationalsocreatedsomeorganizationalproblems.
Needs for Improving PhilRices R&D Capabilities

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PhilRice Leadership

Tohelpcarryoutthismandate,PhilRiceestablishedsevenbranchstations
strategicallylocatednationwideanddifferentR&DdivisionstodoriceR&D.(See
appendix1)