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LECTURE 1

INTRODUCTION PART 1
January 30, 2012

Design of steel and prestressed


concrete structures

Introduction
Introduction
Conceptual design of building- studies earlier
Design Codes
1)BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures
Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings, British Standards.
2)BS EN 1993-1-8:2005, Eurocode 3: Design of Steel structures
Part 1-8: Design of joints, British Standards.
Actions
Tributary areas studied earlier
Material behaviour/ Properties of materials studied earlier

Design of steel and prestressed


concrete structures

Introduction

Engineering Design consists of Two stages


Feasibility Study/ Conceptual design :Involves comparison of the
alternative forms of structure and selection of most suitable type
The success of this stage relies to a large extent on the engineering
judgement and instinct, both of which are the outcome of many
years experience of designing structures.
Detailed design: involves detailed design of the chosen structure
The detailed also requires these attributes but is usually more
dependent upon a thorough understanding of the codes of practice
for structural design namely EC2 and EC3
These documents are based on the experience of many generations
of engineers, and the results of research. They help to ensure safety
and economy of construction, and that mistakes are not repeated.

Design of steel and prestressed


concrete structures

Introduction
What is Structural steel?
Steel - man made metal
containing 98% or more iron
small amounts of elements derived from raw materials and also elements
added to improve certain properties..C, Si, Mn, P,S, Niobium, Vanadium
Carbon improves strength and hardness but reduces ductility and
toughness. Restricted between 0.2 and 0.25% to produce steel that is
weldable and not brittle
smaller amounts of manganese, nickel etc

Structural steel
steel available in various shapes and forms
utilised to support loads and resist the various forces to which a structure
is subjected.

Design of steel and prestressed


concrete structures

column
beam

Multi-storey steel building frame


Design of steel and prestressed
concrete structures

foundation
5

beam

connection

column

Design of steel and prestressed


concrete structures

Design of steel and prestressed


concrete structures

Advantages of Steel:

High strength to low weight - good for long span bridges, tall buildings
Uniformity-properties do not change with time unlike concrete
Elasticity behaves closer to design assumptions than most materials follows
Hookes law to fairly high stress
Ductility withstand extensive deformation without failure under high tensile stress
free from sudden failure
Additions to existing structures
Time saving
Flexibility in fabrication
Reuse on demolition

Disadvantages of Steel:

Maintenance cost corrosion requires periodic treatment


Fire proofing strength tremendously reduced at high temperature
high cost of fire proofing
Susceptibility to buckling for long slender members
Fatigue strength reduced if large number of stress reversals

Design of steel and prestressed


concrete structures

General Steel Properties


The important characteristics of steel for
design purposes are:
yield stress (Fy)
ultimate stress (Fu).tensile strength
modulus of elasticity (E)
percent elongation ()
coefficient of thermal expansion ()

Design of steel and prestressed


concrete structures

The Tension test

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concrete structures

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Grade of Steel and Design Strength (table 3.1 EN


1993-1-1)page 26
Grade of Steel

Yield Strength Ultimate strength


or Design
fu
Strength(N/m
m2)

Grade 55

S450

440

550

Grade 50

S355

355

510

Grade 43

S275

275

430

Grade 36

S 235

235

360

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The four grades are S235,S275, S355,


S460
S460 is the strongest, but the lower
grades are most commonly used in
structural applications.
S stands for Structural
The number indicates the yield strength of
the material in N/mm2.
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Conceptual Design of building

Design process by which an optimum solution is obtained. In any


design, certain criteria must be established to evaluate whether or
not an optimum has been achieved
Design: Determination of overall proportions and dimensions of the
supporting framework and the selection of individual members.
Aim of Structural Design To provide with due regard to economy
a structure capable of fulfilling its intended function and sustaining
the specified loads for its intended life. The design should facilitate
safe fabrication, transport, handling and erection- account future
maintenance, final demolition, recycling and reuse of materials
Responsibility: The structural engineer, within the constraints
imposed by the architect (number of stories, floor plan,..) is
responsible for structural design.
Philosophies/ Theories used for design: Elastic design, Plastic
design and Limit State Design

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Object of Structural Design


Safety (the structure doesnt fall down during lifetime)
Serviceability (how well the structure performs in term of appearance and
deflection)
Fulfill requirements of client
Economy (an efficient use of materials and labor)
Alternatives
Several alternative designs should be prepared and their costs compared

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Plastic Design
Utilises strength of steel beyond yield point
The structure may be loaded beyond the yield point if:
The tendency of the fibre at the yield point stress toward
plastic deformation is resisted by the adjacent fibres
Those parts of the structure that remain in the elasticstress range are capable of supporting this incremental
load
The ultimate load is reached when these conditions
cease to exist and thus the structure collapses
Plastic design is concerned with an allowable load, which
equals the ultimate load divided by an appropriate factor
called the load factor.
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Limit State Concept in Design


Stated in cl 2.2 EN 1993-1-1 2005 :Eurocode 3 Design of
Steel Structures Part 1-1: General rules and rules for
buildings, British Standards
The standard gives recommendations for the design of
structural steel work using hot rolled sections, flats, plates,
hot finished structural hollow sections and cold formed
structural hollow sections, in buildings and allied structures
Structures should be designed by considering the limit
states beyond which they would become unfit for their
intended use

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Limit states

Examples of limit states relevant to steel structures are given in Table 1.

Ultimate limit states (ULS) Serviceability limit


states(SLS)
Strength cl6.1

Deflection

Stability against overturning


and sway stability

Vibration

Fatigue

Wind induced oscillation

Brittle fracture cl3.2.3

Durability, cl.4

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General principles

This course discusses


Ultimate limit state of strength
Serviceability limit state of deflection.

Stability aspect of complete structures or sub-structures.


Structures must be robust enough not to overturn or sway
excessively under wind or other sideways loading
Fatigue taken care by the provision of adequate safety factors to
prevent the occurrence of high stresses associated with fatigue.
Brittle fracture avoided by selecting the correct grade of steel for
the expected ambient conditions.
Excessive vibrations and oscillations subject of structural
dynamics
Corrosion- serious problem for exposed steelwork correct
preparation and painting of the steel will ensure maximum durability
and minimum maintenance during the life of the structure. Or else
weather resistant steels can be used.
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Different types of load have different probabilities of occurrence and


different degrees of variability, and that the probabilities associated with
these loads change in different ways as the degree of overload
considered increases. Because of this different load factors should be
used for the different load types.
Load partial factors

F, G, Q

Partial factor for variability


of strength

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Limit State Design

Also called LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design) in USA.


The structure is deemed to be satisfactory if its design load effect
does not exceed its design resistance
Design load effect Design resistance
(effect of specified loads x g,Q) specified resistance / M factor
Though limit state design method is presented in a deterministic
format, the partial factors are obtained using probabilistic models
based on statistical distributions of loads and structural capacity
Each load effect (DL, LL, ..)has a different load factor which its value
depends on the combination of loads under consideration.

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Characteristic and Design Material Strength

The material strength may be less than intended because (a) of its
variable composition, and (b) because of the variability of the
manufacturing conditions , and other effects such as corrosion.
Item (a) is allowed by using the characteristic value.
The characteristic strength is the value below which the strength lies
in only small percentage of cases.
The characteristic value is determined from test results using
statistical principles , and is normally defined as the value below
which not more than 5% of the test results fall.
The overall effect of items under (b) is allowed for using a partial
safety factor : m for strength
Design Strength is obtained by dividing the characteristic strength
by the partial safety factor for strength
The value of m depends upon the properties of the actual
construction materials being used.
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ACTIONS
BS EN 1990:2002 : ACTIONS ARE A SET OF FORCES
(LOADS) applied to a structure ,or/and deformations produced
by temperature , settlement or earthquakes
Values of actions are obtained by determining characteristic or
representative values of loads or forces
Ideally, loads applied to a structure during its working life,
should be analysed statistically and a characteristic load is
determined.
Characteristic Load: is the representation of the real load, which
is defined as the load with 95% probability of not being
exceeded throughout its lifetime
Characteristic Load = Average Load +1.64 X Standard deviation
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Classification of Actions

PERMANENT ACTIONS (G)


are due to weight of the structure i.e. walls, permanent partitions, floors, roofs,
finishes and services
The actual weights of materials (Gk) should be used in design calculations; but if
not known use density in kN/m3 from EN 1991-1:2002.
Also included in this group are water and soil pressures, forces due to settlement
etc

VARIABLE ACTIONS (Q)


Imposed floor Loads (Qk) are variable actions; given for various dwellings
in EN 1991-1-1:2002.
These loads include a small allowance for impact and other dynamic
effects that may occur in normal occupancy. Do not include forces
resulting from the acceleration and braking of vehicles or movement of
crowds. The loads are usually given as distributed loads or an alternative
concentrated load
Wind Actions (Wk) : Are variable but for convenience are expressed as static

pressures in EN 1991-1-4(2002).
Thermal effects need to be considered for chimneys, cooling towers, tanks and
cold storage services. Classified as indirect variable actions.
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Actions to be taken for adequate performance in fire


ACCIDENTAL ACTIONS(A)
Accidental actions during execution include scaffolding,
props and bracing (EN 1991-1-6:2002). These may involve
consideration of construction loads, instability and collapse
prior to completion of the project
Earthquake Loads (the effects of ground motion are
simulated by a system of horizontal forces):EN1998-8(2004)
Actions induced by cranes and machinery : EN 19913(2004)
Impact and Explosions covered in EN 1991-1-7(2004).

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Characteristic and Design Load

When checking the safety of a member, the designer cannot be certain


about the load the member must carry because (a) of the variability of the
occupancy or environmental loading, and (b) because of unforeseen
circumstances which may lead to an increase in the general level of loading,
errors in analysis, errors during construction etc
Item (a) is allowed by using the characteristic value.
The characteristic load is the value above which the load lies in only small
percentage of cases.
Statistical principles cannot be used at present to determine characteristic
loads because sufficient data is not available.
Therefore the characteristic loads are normally taken to be the design loads
from other codes of practice : BS 648 and BS 6399.
Design Load is the value used in design calculations product of
characteristic load and partial safety factors in order to increase reliability
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Combinations of Design Actions


FOR THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE, three alternative combinations of
actions, modified by appropriate partial safety factors (), must be
investigated
(a) Fundamental: a combination of all permanent actions including self
weight(Gk), the dominant variable action (Qk) and combination values of
all other variable actions(0Qk)
(b) A combination of the dominant variable actions(0Qk). This
combination assumes that accidents of short duration have a low
probability of occurrence
(c)Seismic:reduces the permanent action partial safety factor(G)with a
reduction factor ()between 0.85 and 1
FOR SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE : 3 alternative combination of
actions must be investigated
(A) The characteristic rare combination occurring in cases exceeding limit
state causes permanent local damage or deformation

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Properties of materials
Design strength
BS EN 1993-1-1(2005) covers the design of structures
fabricated from structural steels conforming to the
grades and product standards specified. If other steels
are used, due allowance should be made for variations
in properties, including ductility and weldability.
The design strength py should be taken as 1.0Ys but not
greater than Us /1.2 where Ys and Us are respectively
the minimum yield strength and the minimum tensile
strength specified in the relevant product standard.
For the more commonly used grades and thicknesses of
steel the value of py may be obtained from Table 3.1.

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Standard Cross-Sectional Shapes

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Compound Sections

Compound sections are formed by:


Strengthening a rolled section (say UB) by welding a cover plate
Combining 2 separate rolled sections like in crane girder
Connecting two members to form a combined strong member. Example: laced
and braced members

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Fabricated sections/ Built-up


sections

Fabricated sections can be welded or bolted

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Cold rolled sections


Cold formed Rectangular Hollow sections

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Differences between cold formed and hot rolled sections

Cold-formed steel has been widely used in building construction,


from residential houses to industrial buildings.
Cold-formed steel offers versatility in building because of its
lightweight and ease of handling and use.
Cold-formed steel represents over 45 percent of the steel
construction market in US, and this share is increasing
The hot-rolled steel shapes are formed at elevated temperatures
while the cold-formed steel shapes are formed at room temperature.
Cold-formed steel structural members are shapes commonly
manufactured from steel plate, sheet or strip material.
The manufacturing process involves forming the material by either
press-braking or cold roll-forming to achieve the desired shape.
Examples of the cold-formed steel are corrugated steel roof and
floor decks, steel wall panels, storage racks and steel wall studs.
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Press-braking is often used for production of small quantity of


simple shapes.
Cold roll-forming is the most widely used method for production of
roof, floor and wall panels. It is also used for the production of
structural components such as Cees, Zees, and hat sections.
Sections can usually be made from sheet up to 60 inches (1.5m)
wide and from coils more than 3,000 feet (1,000m) long.
During cold roll-forming, sheet stock is fed longitudinally through a
series of rolls, each of which works the sheet progressively until it
reaches the desired shape. A simple section may require as few as
six pairs of roll, but a complex shape can require as many as 24 to
30. The thickness of material that can be formed generally ranges
between 0.004 (0.10mm) up to 0.312 inches (7.7mm), although
heavy duty cold forming mills can handle steel up to of an inch
(19mm) thick.

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Cold rolling Mill


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Cold rolled shapes

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Differences between cold formed


and hot rolled steel

thickness
shapes.
Since cold-formed steel members are formed at room temperature, the
material becomes harder and stronger.
Its lightweight makes it easier and more economical to mass-produce,
transport and install.
One of the main differences between designing with cold-formed steel
shapes and with hot-rolled structural shapes is that with the hot-rolled, one
is primarily concerned about two types of instability: column buckling and
lateral buckling of unbraced beams. The dimensions of hot-rolled shapes
are such that local buckling of individual constituent elements generally will
not occur before yielding.
This is not the case with cold-formed members. Here local buckling must
also be considered because, in most cases, the material used is thin relative
to its width. This means that the individual flat, or plate, elements of the
section often have width to thickness ratios that will permit buckling at
stresses well below the yield point.

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EXAMPLE 1
Determine the properties Iyy, Zy, Sy of 610 x 229
UB 125 section with a 300mm x 20 mm plate
welded to each flange

Because of symmetry of the section the


centroid of the plated UB is at the web
centre

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Ixx

= (IGG+Ar2)
= 98500+2 x 300 x 20X{(611.9+20)/2]2/10000

= 218290 CM4

218290
Zx
6697cm4
611.9 2 20 /(2 10

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Shape factor
Shape factor is defined as

plastic mod ulus S xx

Elastic mod ulus Z xx


EXAMPLE 3
Determine the shape factor for a rectangular section of width 10 mm
and depth 500 mm.
Zxx = bd2/6=10 x 5002/6
Sxx = bd2/4 = 10 x 5002/4
Therefore shape factor = Sxx/Zxx = 6/4 = 1.5
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Determine the shape factor for 610 x


229 UB 125 section
plastic mod ulus S xx 3676

1.14
Elastic mod ulus Z xx 3221

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