Steel design introduction

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Steel design introduction

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INTRODUCTION PART 1

January 30, 2012

concrete structures

Introduction

Introduction

Conceptual design of building- studies earlier

Design Codes

1)BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures

Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings, British Standards.

2)BS EN 1993-1-8:2005, Eurocode 3: Design of Steel structures

Part 1-8: Design of joints, British Standards.

Actions

Tributary areas studied earlier

Material behaviour/ Properties of materials studied earlier

concrete structures

Introduction

Feasibility Study/ Conceptual design :Involves comparison of the

alternative forms of structure and selection of most suitable type

The success of this stage relies to a large extent on the engineering

judgement and instinct, both of which are the outcome of many

years experience of designing structures.

Detailed design: involves detailed design of the chosen structure

The detailed also requires these attributes but is usually more

dependent upon a thorough understanding of the codes of practice

for structural design namely EC2 and EC3

These documents are based on the experience of many generations

of engineers, and the results of research. They help to ensure safety

and economy of construction, and that mistakes are not repeated.

concrete structures

Introduction

What is Structural steel?

Steel - man made metal

containing 98% or more iron

small amounts of elements derived from raw materials and also elements

added to improve certain properties..C, Si, Mn, P,S, Niobium, Vanadium

Carbon improves strength and hardness but reduces ductility and

toughness. Restricted between 0.2 and 0.25% to produce steel that is

weldable and not brittle

smaller amounts of manganese, nickel etc

Structural steel

steel available in various shapes and forms

utilised to support loads and resist the various forces to which a structure

is subjected.

concrete structures

column

beam

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

foundation

5

beam

connection

column

concrete structures

concrete structures

Advantages of Steel:

High strength to low weight - good for long span bridges, tall buildings

Uniformity-properties do not change with time unlike concrete

Elasticity behaves closer to design assumptions than most materials follows

Hookes law to fairly high stress

Ductility withstand extensive deformation without failure under high tensile stress

free from sudden failure

Additions to existing structures

Time saving

Flexibility in fabrication

Reuse on demolition

Disadvantages of Steel:

Fire proofing strength tremendously reduced at high temperature

high cost of fire proofing

Susceptibility to buckling for long slender members

Fatigue strength reduced if large number of stress reversals

concrete structures

The important characteristics of steel for

design purposes are:

yield stress (Fy)

ultimate stress (Fu).tensile strength

modulus of elasticity (E)

percent elongation ()

coefficient of thermal expansion ()

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10

concrete structures

11

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12

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13

1993-1-1)page 26

Grade of Steel

or Design

fu

Strength(N/m

m2)

Grade 55

S450

440

550

Grade 50

S355

355

510

Grade 43

S275

275

430

Grade 36

S 235

235

360

concrete structures

14

concrete structures

15

S460

S460 is the strongest, but the lower

grades are most commonly used in

structural applications.

S stands for Structural

The number indicates the yield strength of

the material in N/mm2.

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

16

design, certain criteria must be established to evaluate whether or

not an optimum has been achieved

Design: Determination of overall proportions and dimensions of the

supporting framework and the selection of individual members.

Aim of Structural Design To provide with due regard to economy

a structure capable of fulfilling its intended function and sustaining

the specified loads for its intended life. The design should facilitate

safe fabrication, transport, handling and erection- account future

maintenance, final demolition, recycling and reuse of materials

Responsibility: The structural engineer, within the constraints

imposed by the architect (number of stories, floor plan,..) is

responsible for structural design.

Philosophies/ Theories used for design: Elastic design, Plastic

design and Limit State Design

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17

Safety (the structure doesnt fall down during lifetime)

Serviceability (how well the structure performs in term of appearance and

deflection)

Fulfill requirements of client

Economy (an efficient use of materials and labor)

Alternatives

Several alternative designs should be prepared and their costs compared

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18

Plastic Design

Utilises strength of steel beyond yield point

The structure may be loaded beyond the yield point if:

The tendency of the fibre at the yield point stress toward

plastic deformation is resisted by the adjacent fibres

Those parts of the structure that remain in the elasticstress range are capable of supporting this incremental

load

The ultimate load is reached when these conditions

cease to exist and thus the structure collapses

Plastic design is concerned with an allowable load, which

equals the ultimate load divided by an appropriate factor

called the load factor.

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

19

Stated in cl 2.2 EN 1993-1-1 2005 :Eurocode 3 Design of

Steel Structures Part 1-1: General rules and rules for

buildings, British Standards

The standard gives recommendations for the design of

structural steel work using hot rolled sections, flats, plates,

hot finished structural hollow sections and cold formed

structural hollow sections, in buildings and allied structures

Structures should be designed by considering the limit

states beyond which they would become unfit for their

intended use

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20

Limit states

states(SLS)

Strength cl6.1

Deflection

and sway stability

Vibration

Fatigue

Durability, cl.4

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21

General principles

Ultimate limit state of strength

Serviceability limit state of deflection.

Structures must be robust enough not to overturn or sway

excessively under wind or other sideways loading

Fatigue taken care by the provision of adequate safety factors to

prevent the occurrence of high stresses associated with fatigue.

Brittle fracture avoided by selecting the correct grade of steel for

the expected ambient conditions.

Excessive vibrations and oscillations subject of structural

dynamics

Corrosion- serious problem for exposed steelwork correct

preparation and painting of the steel will ensure maximum durability

and minimum maintenance during the life of the structure. Or else

weather resistant steels can be used.

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

22

different degrees of variability, and that the probabilities associated with

these loads change in different ways as the degree of overload

considered increases. Because of this different load factors should be

used for the different load types.

Load partial factors

F, G, Q

of strength

concrete structures

23

The structure is deemed to be satisfactory if its design load effect

does not exceed its design resistance

Design load effect Design resistance

(effect of specified loads x g,Q) specified resistance / M factor

Though limit state design method is presented in a deterministic

format, the partial factors are obtained using probabilistic models

based on statistical distributions of loads and structural capacity

Each load effect (DL, LL, ..)has a different load factor which its value

depends on the combination of loads under consideration.

concrete structures

24

The material strength may be less than intended because (a) of its

variable composition, and (b) because of the variability of the

manufacturing conditions , and other effects such as corrosion.

Item (a) is allowed by using the characteristic value.

The characteristic strength is the value below which the strength lies

in only small percentage of cases.

The characteristic value is determined from test results using

statistical principles , and is normally defined as the value below

which not more than 5% of the test results fall.

The overall effect of items under (b) is allowed for using a partial

safety factor : m for strength

Design Strength is obtained by dividing the characteristic strength

by the partial safety factor for strength

The value of m depends upon the properties of the actual

construction materials being used.

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

25

ACTIONS

BS EN 1990:2002 : ACTIONS ARE A SET OF FORCES

(LOADS) applied to a structure ,or/and deformations produced

by temperature , settlement or earthquakes

Values of actions are obtained by determining characteristic or

representative values of loads or forces

Ideally, loads applied to a structure during its working life,

should be analysed statistically and a characteristic load is

determined.

Characteristic Load: is the representation of the real load, which

is defined as the load with 95% probability of not being

exceeded throughout its lifetime

Characteristic Load = Average Load +1.64 X Standard deviation

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

26

Classification of Actions

are due to weight of the structure i.e. walls, permanent partitions, floors, roofs,

finishes and services

The actual weights of materials (Gk) should be used in design calculations; but if

not known use density in kN/m3 from EN 1991-1:2002.

Also included in this group are water and soil pressures, forces due to settlement

etc

Imposed floor Loads (Qk) are variable actions; given for various dwellings

in EN 1991-1-1:2002.

These loads include a small allowance for impact and other dynamic

effects that may occur in normal occupancy. Do not include forces

resulting from the acceleration and braking of vehicles or movement of

crowds. The loads are usually given as distributed loads or an alternative

concentrated load

Wind Actions (Wk) : Are variable but for convenience are expressed as static

pressures in EN 1991-1-4(2002).

Thermal effects need to be considered for chimneys, cooling towers, tanks and

cold storage services. Classified as indirect variable actions.

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

27

ACCIDENTAL ACTIONS(A)

Accidental actions during execution include scaffolding,

props and bracing (EN 1991-1-6:2002). These may involve

consideration of construction loads, instability and collapse

prior to completion of the project

Earthquake Loads (the effects of ground motion are

simulated by a system of horizontal forces):EN1998-8(2004)

Actions induced by cranes and machinery : EN 19913(2004)

Impact and Explosions covered in EN 1991-1-7(2004).

concrete structures

28

about the load the member must carry because (a) of the variability of the

occupancy or environmental loading, and (b) because of unforeseen

circumstances which may lead to an increase in the general level of loading,

errors in analysis, errors during construction etc

Item (a) is allowed by using the characteristic value.

The characteristic load is the value above which the load lies in only small

percentage of cases.

Statistical principles cannot be used at present to determine characteristic

loads because sufficient data is not available.

Therefore the characteristic loads are normally taken to be the design loads

from other codes of practice : BS 648 and BS 6399.

Design Load is the value used in design calculations product of

characteristic load and partial safety factors in order to increase reliability

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

29

FOR THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE, three alternative combinations of

actions, modified by appropriate partial safety factors (), must be

investigated

(a) Fundamental: a combination of all permanent actions including self

weight(Gk), the dominant variable action (Qk) and combination values of

all other variable actions(0Qk)

(b) A combination of the dominant variable actions(0Qk). This

combination assumes that accidents of short duration have a low

probability of occurrence

(c)Seismic:reduces the permanent action partial safety factor(G)with a

reduction factor ()between 0.85 and 1

FOR SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE : 3 alternative combination of

actions must be investigated

(A) The characteristic rare combination occurring in cases exceeding limit

state causes permanent local damage or deformation

concrete structures

30

Properties of materials

Design strength

BS EN 1993-1-1(2005) covers the design of structures

fabricated from structural steels conforming to the

grades and product standards specified. If other steels

are used, due allowance should be made for variations

in properties, including ductility and weldability.

The design strength py should be taken as 1.0Ys but not

greater than Us /1.2 where Ys and Us are respectively

the minimum yield strength and the minimum tensile

strength specified in the relevant product standard.

For the more commonly used grades and thicknesses of

steel the value of py may be obtained from Table 3.1.

concrete structures

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concrete structures

32

concrete structures

33

concrete structures

34

concrete structures

35

Compound Sections

Strengthening a rolled section (say UB) by welding a cover plate

Combining 2 separate rolled sections like in crane girder

Connecting two members to form a combined strong member. Example: laced

and braced members

concrete structures

36

sections

concrete structures

37

Cold formed Rectangular Hollow sections

concrete structures

38

from residential houses to industrial buildings.

Cold-formed steel offers versatility in building because of its

lightweight and ease of handling and use.

Cold-formed steel represents over 45 percent of the steel

construction market in US, and this share is increasing

The hot-rolled steel shapes are formed at elevated temperatures

while the cold-formed steel shapes are formed at room temperature.

Cold-formed steel structural members are shapes commonly

manufactured from steel plate, sheet or strip material.

The manufacturing process involves forming the material by either

press-braking or cold roll-forming to achieve the desired shape.

Examples of the cold-formed steel are corrugated steel roof and

floor decks, steel wall panels, storage racks and steel wall studs.

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

39

simple shapes.

Cold roll-forming is the most widely used method for production of

roof, floor and wall panels. It is also used for the production of

structural components such as Cees, Zees, and hat sections.

Sections can usually be made from sheet up to 60 inches (1.5m)

wide and from coils more than 3,000 feet (1,000m) long.

During cold roll-forming, sheet stock is fed longitudinally through a

series of rolls, each of which works the sheet progressively until it

reaches the desired shape. A simple section may require as few as

six pairs of roll, but a complex shape can require as many as 24 to

30. The thickness of material that can be formed generally ranges

between 0.004 (0.10mm) up to 0.312 inches (7.7mm), although

heavy duty cold forming mills can handle steel up to of an inch

(19mm) thick.

concrete structures

40

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

41

concrete structures

42

concrete structures

43

and hot rolled steel

thickness

shapes.

Since cold-formed steel members are formed at room temperature, the

material becomes harder and stronger.

Its lightweight makes it easier and more economical to mass-produce,

transport and install.

One of the main differences between designing with cold-formed steel

shapes and with hot-rolled structural shapes is that with the hot-rolled, one

is primarily concerned about two types of instability: column buckling and

lateral buckling of unbraced beams. The dimensions of hot-rolled shapes

are such that local buckling of individual constituent elements generally will

not occur before yielding.

This is not the case with cold-formed members. Here local buckling must

also be considered because, in most cases, the material used is thin relative

to its width. This means that the individual flat, or plate, elements of the

section often have width to thickness ratios that will permit buckling at

stresses well below the yield point.

concrete structures

44

EXAMPLE 1

Determine the properties Iyy, Zy, Sy of 610 x 229

UB 125 section with a 300mm x 20 mm plate

welded to each flange

centroid of the plated UB is at the web

centre

concrete structures

45

Ixx

= (IGG+Ar2)

= 98500+2 x 300 x 20X{(611.9+20)/2]2/10000

= 218290 CM4

218290

Zx

6697cm4

611.9 2 20 /(2 10

concrete structures

46

Shape factor

Shape factor is defined as

EXAMPLE 3

Determine the shape factor for a rectangular section of width 10 mm

and depth 500 mm.

Zxx = bd2/6=10 x 5002/6

Sxx = bd2/4 = 10 x 5002/4

Therefore shape factor = Sxx/Zxx = 6/4 = 1.5

Design of steel and prestressed

concrete structures

47

229 UB 125 section

plastic mod ulus S xx 3676

1.14

Elastic mod ulus Z xx 3221

concrete structures

48

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