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Chapter Calculus

Ax + Bx = 0
Ax + Bx = Cf t

Ax + Bx + Cx = 0

Ax + Bx + Cx = Df t

first-order homogeneous
first-order non-homogeneous
second-order homogeneous
second-order non-homogeneous

First order Homogeneous


Given the gene ral for m of a fir s t-orde r hom ogeneous equation,
A x + B x = 0

and

x 0 = x 0

Second order homogeneous


Given,
A x + Bx + Cx = 0

x 0 = x0

and

x 0 = v0

Solution cases
If the values for Y are both real, but different, the general form is,
R t
1

Y = R ,R
1 2

R t
2

xh = X 1 e
+ X2 e
Note: The initial conditions are then used to find the values for X

and X 2 .

If the values for Y are both real, and identical, the general form is,
R t
1

Y = R ,R
1 1

R t
1

xh = X 1 e
+ X 2 te
The initial conditions are then used to find the values for X

If the values for Y are complex, the general form is,


Y = j

x h = X3 e

t cos

t + X4

and X 2.

First order non-homogeneous


A x + B x = C f t

x0 = x

Second order non-homogeneous


A x + B x + C x = Df t

Forcing Function

x 0 = x
0

and

Ax + B
Ax
e

Cx + D
A x or
Ax
Ce
Cxe
or B cos A x

Guess

B sin A x

x 0 = v

C sin A x + Dcos A x
or C x sin A x + xDcos A x

Example
M

F
K

y
K
d

Solve,

x + 2 x + 1 0 x =

s in 1 0 t

First order response


y
y

OR

t
y t = y1 + y 0 y 1 e

y + 1--- y = f t

time constant

y
y1

y0

Second order response


2
y + 2 n y + n y = f t

= n

2
=
1

d
n

t
y t = y ss + y 0 yss e cos t
d
y ss

y0

Natural frequency of system - Approximate frequency of control


system oscillations.
Damping factor of system - If < 1 underdamped, and system will
oscillate. If =1 critically damped. If > 1 overdamped, and never
any oscillation (more like a first-order system). As damping factor
approaches 0, the first peak becomes infinite in height.
The actual frequency of oscillation - It is below the natural frequency because of the damping.

Examples

0.5
(underdamped)

1
= = 0.707
2

= 1 (critical)
(overdamped)

Consider the first order response

Approximating a second order response


tp

fd = 1--T

T
ess

0.02 x

0.02 x
0.9 x

tr

ts

x
0.5 x

0.1 x

w here ,
t = r is e tim e (fr om 10% to 90%)
r
t s = s ettling tim e (to w ithin 2-5% typ.)
x = total dis place me nt
T, f = per iod and fre quency - dampe d
d
b = ove rs hoot
t = tim e to fir s t peak
p
e s s = s te ady s tate er ror

t
x = x e cos d t

d ---tp

= n
tp
b
------ = e
x
1
=
2

t p + 1

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Consider the second order response

Higher order responses

+ 40 + 20 + 2 = 4

Transient vs. Steady State

Steady-state
Transient

Consider the following multi-body system

Non-Linear Equations

x + x2 = 5
2
x +x = 5
x + log x = 5
x + 5t x = 5