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Fake

Medicine
By: Licudine and

Fake Medicines sold


at the street of Africa

Fake Medicines at the Philippines

Fake Medicines at China

Counterfeit or Fake Medicine

Counterfeit medicine is fake


medicine.
It
may
be
contaminated or contain the
wrong or no active ingredient.
They couldhave the right active
ingredient but at the wrong dose.
Counterfeit drugs are illegal and
may be harmful to your health.

About 100,000 deaths a year in


Africa
are
linked
to
the
counterfeit
drug
trade,
according to the World Health
Organization (WHO). The British
think-tank, International Policy
Network,
estimates
that
globally, 700,000 deaths a year
are caused by fake malaria and
tuberculosis drugs.

For someone with advanced


technical know-how and a
devious mind, a piece of chalk
or some flour or starch can be
shaped into a tablet or pill. With
the naked eye, its almost
impossible to tell its a copycat.
Labeling and packaging are
often imitated to perfection.

Multibillion-dollar illicit
trade

The international sources of fake


medicines are China, India, and
Pakistan.
The local sources are found in
Manila, Cebu, Aurora, Bataan,
Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga,
Tarlac,
Zambales,
Batangas,
Cavite,
Laguna,
Rizal,
and
Quezon.
The country's pharmaceutical

Funding Terrorism
In March 2006, the U.S. Attorneys Office
indicted 18 people for a multimillion-dollar
international conspiracy to smuggle untaxed
cigarettes, counterfeit Viagra and other goods
to raise money for the Middle East terrorist
group Hezbollah. The alleged scheme,
operated from 1996 to 2004, was based in
Dearborn, Michigan and received counterfeit
Viagra from China and Eastern Europe for
distribution across the United States.

Cases of Fake Medicines


Counterfeit Drugs in the U.S.
In the 1980s, when the U.S. drug supply was
open to foreign medicines, many women taking
birth control were getting pregnant. After many
complaints and investigations, it was discovered
that they were taking counterfeit pills of foreign
origin.Members of Congress took action to help
prevent this from happening again and passed a
bill called the Prescription Drug Marketing Act.
This bill closed the U.S. drug supply system to
help prevent foreign counterfeit drugs from
getting in the hands of American.

the National Agency for Food and


Drug Administration and Control
(NAFDAC) of Nigeria issued a press
release
stating
that
a
large
consignment of fake anti-malarial
generic pharmaceuticals labelled
`Made in India' were, in fact, found to
have been produced in China.

Cases of Fake Drugs in the Philippines


Source: http://philnews.ph/
Sincere Drug Storewith eight branches and
one warehouse sited inBacolod Cityhad been
raid by authorities of theNational Bureau of
Investigation(NBI).
Under the direction of Executive Judge Amor
Reyes from the NCR Regional Trial Court
Branch 21,a search warrant was handed.
Inaccordanceto the complaint given by
theUnilab Laboratories, the raid led by
Intellectual Property Rights Division of NBI
based in Manila.

According to the owner of Sincere


Drug Store,Ricky Enriquez, the raid
was not fair saying that he was
seemingly singled out since he
decided
to
stop
purchasing
medicines from Unilab Laboratories
for the past five years. Enriquez
came up to this decision for the
reason that he wanted to have a
supplier that could offer him cheaper
medicines.

He also added that aside from him, there


are still other drug stores which
purchase medicines on the same
distributor he has at present.
Meanwhile, Monsanto stated that among
those recovered fake medicines were
Alaxan, Neo Aspilets, Biogesic,
Diatabs,
InsulinandSulmux.
On
verification conducted by an assigned
Unilab representative, it was declared
that the medicines were counterfeited
and ineffective.

The violation falls under theRepublic Act


8293better known as theIntellectual
Property
Rights
Code
of
the
Philippines, specifically to Section 155 in
connection to the Section 170 had been
charged to the owner of the Sincere Drug
Store,Ricky Enriquez.

Source: http://www.istorya.net/
MANILA, Philippines - Based on Department of
Health (DOH) figures, 10% or 1 of every 10
medicines in the country is fake, according to
the Samahan Laban sa Pekeng Gamot
(Samahan).
"Consumers unwittingly buy from drug stores
with counterfeit medicines. If that patient
dies, no one will be going to report anymore
because the patient is already dead," said Dr.
Maria Minerva Calimag, Samahan spokesman
and chair of the Cosmetics Committee of the
Philippine Medical Association (PMA).

"Consumers unwittingly buy from


drug stores with counterfeit
medicines. If that patient dies, no
one will be going to report anymore
because the patient is already dead,"
said Dr. Maria Minerva Calimag,
Samahan spokesman and chair of
the Cosmetics Committee of the
Philippine Medical Association (PMA).

Dr. Calimag said fake medicines should


be flushed out immediately from market.
She said the true extent of the
counterfeiting problem is "hidden" and
that the 10% estimate is based only on
cases reported to the Food and Drugs
Administration
(FDA).
"From the point of view of the PMA, we
strongly recommend that we buy only from
Food and Drugs Administration-listed
pharmacy. Source is important. As doctors
we do our diagnosis, and then we depend
on medicines to work," she added.

http://www.tempo.com.ph/2012/04/0
1/pakistani-nabbed-for-fake-drugs/
Manila, Philippines The Philippine National
Police (PNP) warned the people yesterday to
be wary of popular medicines and vitamins
they are buying after the confiscation of
counterfeit drugs and the arrest of a foreigner
selling them.
Director Samuel Pagdilao Jr., head of the PNP
Criminal Investigation and Detection Group
(CIDG), said police are now hunting down the
two other foreign cohorts of 54-yearold
Pakistani Mohammed Yousof Ali who was
collared in a raid in Bacoor, Cavite.

Pagdilao identified them as Nasser


Ali, alias Mohammed Nassrer Ali
and Mohammed Faisal Ali, alias
Faisal Ali and Yasser Ali.
They are members of a syndicate
which has been engaging in the
importation, repacking, and
distribution of fake medicines for
about three years and seven months
now, said Pagdilao.

Seized from them were 10 pieces of


transparent plastic bags containing several
assorted pharmaceutical products, including
500 pieces of Loperamide Diatabs in two
milligrams
capsules,
four
pieces
of
Carbocistein Solmux in 500-milligram capsule,
25 pieces of Cytotec in 200-milligram tablet,
36 pieces of Paracetamol Biogesic in 300milligram tablet, 90 pieces of Mefenamic Acid
Dolfenal in 500-milligram tablet;
Five boxes of Roxithromycin in 150-milligram
tablet, 57 pieces of Dermovate Ointment, 52
pieces of Stresstabs in 600-milligram tablet,
and four pieces of Solmux in 500milligram
tablet.

All of them are fake based on the


result of the examination by the Food
and Drugs Administration (FDA), said
Chief Inspector Jay Agcaoili, head of
the Batangas CIDG.
These fake medicines were being
distributed in small unsuspecting
stores
in
Batangas
and
Cavite
provinces as well as in Quezon City
and in some towns in Cagayan Valley
region, he added. (Aaron B. Recuenco)

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/443225/
counterfeit-drugs-worth-p700million-seized-in-binondo-raid
MANILA, Philippines Authorities on Thursday seized some
P700 million worth of fake medicines and health supplements
during a raid on a warehouse in Binondo, Manila.
The raid on the warehouse along Roman Street was conducted
by operatives from the Bureau of Customs, Intellectual
Property Office and National Bureau of Investigation.
Among the fake medicines and health supplement seized by
the operatives were about 60,000 tablets and capsules of
Viagra Happy Hour, a sex enhancement medicine; 132,000
capsules with Maitong brand; over 60,000 Ballet Dancer
slimming capsules; slimming tea; anti-itch creams; cough
syrups; and fish liver oils.

Authorities said they were still trying to


determine the country of origin of the fake
goods.
According to Customs Commissioner Ruffy
Biazon, they enforced a warrant of seizure and
detention for the contrabands following a
thorough investigation and surveillance which
confirmed earlier reports that the medicines and
health supplements were not only smuggled, but
were also counterfeit goods.
Had these fake medicines and supplements
been sold in the local market, the risks it posed
could have been really alarming, Biazon said,
noting that the medicines were not certified by
the government to be safe for human
consumption.

When buying online


medicine
Consumers should avoid the following:
Sites that are located outside of the United
States
Sites that dont indicate any physical address
Sites that dont have a license by the
relevant state board of pharmacy
Sites without a licensed pharmacist to
answer questions
Sites that do not require a prescription

When buying in
Pharmacy
Buy medicines only from licensed pharmacies
and get a receipt. Do not buy medicines from
open markets.
Ask the pharmacist whether the drug has the
same active ingredient as the one that you were
taking.
Make sure that the medicine is in its original
packaging.
Look closely at the packaging. Sometimes poorquality printing or otherwise strange-looking
packaging will indicate a counterfeit product.

What risks are associated with


counterfeit medicines?
One of the biggest risks of counterfeit
medicines is that patients may not get the
therapeutic benefit expected from the
product. For example, a drug for shrinking
a cancerous tumor may not benefit the
patient because it contains none, or too
little, of the active ingredient. Conversely,
the product may contain too much active
ingredient or other potentially dangerous
contaminants, which could also be harmful.

[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8203]


AN ACT OF PROHIBITING
COUNTERFEIT DRUGS,
PROVIDING
PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS
AND APPROPRIATING
FUNDS THEREFOR

SECTION 4Prohibited Acts.


The following acts are declared
unlawful and therefore prohibited;
a) The manufacture, sale, or offering for
sale, donation, distribution, trafficking,
brokering, exportation, or importation or
possession of counterfeit drugs
b) Forging, counterfeiting, simulating or
falsely representing, or without proper
authority, using any mark, stamp, tag,
label or other identification mark or device.

c) Photocopying, duplicating, altering,


printing, transferring, obliterating or
removing the approved label or any part
thereof, lawfully belonging to another
person, for the purpose of using such label
or a part thereof on any counterfeit drug.
d) Making, selling, or concealing any
punch, dye, plate or any other equipment
or instrument designed to print, imprint or
reproduce the trademark, trade name or
other identifying mark of another
registered producer or any likeness thereof.

SECTION 7.Administrative Sanctions Upon


finding that the drugs examined are counterfeit
and the determination of the parties liable
thereof, the Bureau shall impose any or all of the
following sanctions:
a) permanent closure of the establishment
concerned and the revocation of its license to
business;
b) a fine of not less than One hundred thousand
pesos (P100,000) but not more than Five hundred
thousand pesos (P500,000);
c) upon order of the Court, forfeiture,
confiscation, and destruction of products found to
be counterfeited and the equipment,
instruments, and other articles used in violation
of this Act;

d) filing of an appropriate proceedings against the


registered pharmacist with the Professional
Regulations Commission for cancellation of
professional license;
e) filing of criminal charges against the violator (s),
which can be instituted independently from the
administrative case: Provided, That the dismissal of
the criminal case shall not lift the closure order,
except when it is a dismissal on the merits or for lack
of basis: Provided, further, That the withdrawal of the
private criminal complaint shall not be a ground for
the dismissal of the administrative proceedings; and
f) permanent disqualification of the person
concerned, whether natural or juridical, from owning
or operating an establishment engaged in any
business activity under the supervision of the Bureau.

SECTION 8.Penalties. The commission


of any of the acts prohibited under
Sections 4 and 6 of this Act shall be
punished by:
a) imprisonment of not less than six (6)
months and one (1) day; but not more
than six
(6)years
for
more
possession
of
counterfeit drugs as provided for in
Section 4(b) hereof; or
b) imprisonment of six (6) years and one
(1) day, but not more than ten (10) years
or a fine of not less than One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000) but not more
than Five hundred thousand pesos

c) imprisonment of not less than six


(6) months and one (1) day, but not
more than two
(2)years and four (4) months if the
counterfeit drug is intended for
animals; or
d) imprisonment of not less than six
(6) years and one (1) day but not
more than ten

(10)years for any manufacturer, seller or


distributor who shall conceal, substitute,
dispose or destroy any drug as may have
been segregated and sealed by the
Bureau or who shall break, alter or tamper
any mark or seal used by the Bureau to
identify those segregated drugs as
provided for under Section 6(a) of this Act.
Any other person who breaks, alters or
tampers any mark or seal used by the
Bureau to identify the segregated drugs
shall suffer the penalty of not less than six
(6) months and one (1) day, but not more
than six (6) years imprisonment; or

e) if, as a result of the use of the


drug found to be counterfeit, the
illness sought to be cured is
aggravated or physical injury or
suffering
results
therefrom,
a
punishment of imprisonment from
twelve (12 years to fifteen (15) years
and a fine ranging from One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000) to Five
hundred thousand pesos (P500,000)
shall be meted out; or

f) should a counterfeit drug be the


proximate cause of death of a victim,
who unknowingly purchased and
took a counterfeit drug, the penalty
of life imprisonment and a fine of
Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000) to Five million pesos
(P5,000,000) shall be imposed.

Harmful Ingredients Found In Counterfeit Medicines Have


Included:

Boric acid -
used
as
anantiseptic,insecticide,flame
retardant,neutron absorber, or precursor to other
chemical compounds.
Leaded highway paint
Floor polish
Heavy metals
Nickel- used incoin
Arsenic - used in the production ofpesticides,
treated wood products, herbicides,
andinsecticides.
Brick dust and chalk

THE THREAT OF FAKE DRUGS:


CONSEQUENCES, CAUSES
AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
The business of fake drugs is a lucrative crime that is
increasing annually worldwide. It causes therapeutic
failure, drug resistance and economic sabotage. Some
of the major causes of widespread drug counterfeiting
include
corruption,
inadequate
technology
for
protection of the identity of genuine drugs as well as
lack of political will including lack of vigilance and
advocacy by the healthcare providers. Combating this
menace requires both local and international efforts.
This report is aimed at examining the problem of drug
counterfeiting business with emphasis on the causes
and possible solutions.

HEALTH AND ECONOMIC


CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG
COUNTERFEITING
Antibiotic
resistance:The
relationship
between counterfeit drugs and antibiotic
resistance is two fold. Although, drug
counterfeiting is one of the important causes
of antibiotic resistance in developing countries,
one also has to keep in mind the likelihood of
false reports of antimicrobial resistance in an
area where drug counterfeiting is widespread

Therapeutic failure:Therapeutic failure


may also be associated with the use of
fake drugs containing insufficient or no
active ingradient, leading to loss of
confidence by the patients on the
conventional drugs and public health
program. An estimated 700,000 deaths
annually are caused by fake antimalarials
and tuberculous agents, suggesting that
the total annual mortality due to the
menace will definitely be much higher
(Harriset al., 2009).

Various instances where fake drugs


resulted in deaths due to failure to treat
life-threatening conditions have been
reported in the literature. In 2001 about
192,000 people were reported to have
died in China as a result of fake drugs.
Also about 2500 people died in Niger
following
the
administration
of
counterfeits of meningococcal-vaccines
(containing no active ingredient) to some
60,000 people during the 1995 meningitis
epidemic (Cockburnet al., 2005).

Toxicity:Acute renal failure due to


poisoning from diethylene glycol packaged
as a cough syrup which resulted in
hundreds of deaths in Haiti, Bangladesh,
Nigeria, India and Argentina are examples
of the potentially fatal effects of
counterfeit drugs containing a toxic
ingredient in place of the original active
ingredient (WHO, 1995; Hanifet al., 1995;
OBrienet al., 1998). Also as recent as
2008,62 deaths in the US have been
attributed to the use of adulterated
heparin from China (Harriset al., 2009).

Economic impact of drug


counterfeiting:
Economic loss as a result of drug-counterfeiting is
enormous and appears to be increasing annually.
According to the WHO, about 32 billion US dollars
were lost to drug counterfeiting business in 2004
(WHO, 2006). This increased to 40 billion US
dollars in 2006 and is projected to reach 75 billion
US dollars in 2010 (WHO, 2006; Bate and Boateng,
2007). Many pharmaceutical companies are
deprived of their rightful profits due to the unjust
competition from this brutal crime and have even
resulted in the collapse of some of the companies
(Akunyili, 2005b).

Makers of fake drugs:Why will someone want to


make fake drugs? Drug venture is quiet a lucrative
business. Routine activity theory of crime
prevention states that: A crime occurs when a
suitable target and a potential offender meet at a
suitable time and place lacking capable
guardianship (Cohen and Felson, 1979; Felson,
1986, 1994). This theory is useful in understanding
the origin of crimes including drug counterfeiting.
Drug counterfeiting business thrives better in a
place where the drugs are relatively scarce of the
prices are high . According to the WHO, an
estimated 2 billion people globally have limited
access to essential drugs (WHO, 2004) which is
attributed to poverty, high cost of drugs, inadequate
health facilities and corruption (Cohenet al., 2007).

COMBATING DRUG COUNTERFEITING


Combating drug counterfeiting is a daunting task
that requires collaboration from international
community. This is why WHO recently, alerted the
international community on such need (WHO,
2005). Cooperation as well as exchange of
information between governments and drug
companies in combating this menace is expected
to provide better results. Experts believed that
the big pharmaceutical industries have a lot of
data that could help in combating the problem but
are unwilling to reveal it (Gibson, 2004). There is a
catch 22 situation in combating counterfeiting.

The industries lose money to fake drug peddlers but


the negative publicity that usually follows any case of
drug counterfeiting is a major fear for the industries
whose products were counterfeited. This is also true
for countries that are major exporters of drugs. It has
been reported that some governments are involved
in concealing information on the quantity of fake
drugs circulating within their territories to avoid
branding of their other products as fake. The
emergence of drug counterfeiting business on the
internet that seriously affected profits coupled with
litigations from affected patients targeted against
them have forced major drug companies to start
taking action on this issue in the developed nations.
However, they remain uninterested in tackling the
problem in the developing countries.

CONCLUSION
The menace of drug counterfeiting is a serious public
problem. Reducing or preventing the problem is primary
duty of every responsible nation. Drug industries,
healthcare providers, consumers and governments are
necessary partners in this regard. Tackling corruption at
various levels of the pharmaceutical systems is
indispensable for the success of the crusade against
fake drugs. Also, due to the limited resources of the
developing countries that are worst affected with this
problem as well as the infectious nature of the problem,
there is need for international collaboration in the fight
against this crime.
More studies examining the efficacy of the various
strategies tried worldwide against drug counterfeiting
may be quiet helpful in reducing or even preventing this
menace.

The End