Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 34

The Atmosphere

National Weather Service Shreveport


www.srh.noaa.gov/shv

The Atmosphere
1.Layers of the Atmosphere
2.Air Pressure
3.Transfer of Heat Energy
4.Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance
5.Hydrologic Cycle

The gases that makeup the


Atmosphere

Layers of the Atmosphere

Troposphere
-

Lowest Layer
This is where we live
8 to 12 miles in height
Weather occurs
Temp decreases with height

Stratosphere
- Second lowest layer
- Temp increases with height

Still would feel cold

- Ozone (03) layer


- Absorbs most of the
damaging
ultraviolet sunlight
(UV-B)
Mesosphere
- From ~30 to 53 miles up
- Temp decreases
- Majority of meteors burn up
Thermosphere

Ozone Layer

Upper Air - Radiosondes


Radiosondes are released from the inflation building and
move up through the atmosphere (20 miles) sending back
weather information along the way.

Launch of a Weather
Balloon
The balloon with the radiosonde is
launched twice daily...at 11z and 23z
(GMT)...unless otherwise necessary.

Air Pressure
Density of Molecules decreases with
height.
Although the atmosphere goes up to
184 miles, half of the atmosphere is in
the first 18,000 feet or 3.4 miles.
Less molecules (same composition)
higher up makes it is harder to breath
than at sea level.
Air Pressure is converted to Sea Level
Pressure to observe surface low and
high pressures. (otherwise the Rocky
Mts. would be always be low pressure
and the oceans would be areas of high
pressure).
Pressure also dependent upon
Temperature
(We will perform an experiment on
this)

Barometers

Draw Isotherms.

26.64 -- 902 Hurricane Katrina (2005)

Surface Pressure

2 Experiments
Crunch Time (5-10 min)
- Effect of Heat on
Pressure
- Items used:
- 2 empty 2-liter
bottles
- hot tap water
Go with the Flow (3-5
min)
- Creating Low Pressure
- Bernoullis Principle
- Items used:
- 2 empty soda cans

Crunch Time Experiment


Capped Bottle eventually collapsed. WHY?????
- Air inside that bottle cooled of
- Cooling takes place because the atoms
inside the bottle loose energy as they collide with the
bottle side that is exposed to the cooler surrounding
air.
But why did it collapse
- As atoms loose energytheir velocity
decreases resulting in a decrease of pressure in the
bottle.
- Since the pressure inside the bottle is less
than outsidethe bottle is crushed.
The uncapped bottle remains unchanged. WHY??
As air cools inside the bottle, outside air moves into
the bottle to equalize the pressure on both sides.

Go with the Flow


1. Air flows from high to
low pressure.
2. The air blown between
the cans created an area
of low pressure between
the cans and induced
high pressure
surrounding the cans.
This caused the cans to
move from high to low
pressure. This is known
as Bernoullis Principle.

Transfer of Heat Energy


1.Radiation
2.Conduction

3.Convection

Radiation
The transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic
radiation.
Earth is heated by this process.
- various substances on earth (dirt, rocks, water,
concrete, sand, etc.) absorb this energy and their heat
level is raised. They transmit that heat through mainly
convective heat transfer to the surrounding
atmosphere, and eventually to us.

Conduction
The transfer of heat energy from one
substance to another or within a substance.
Very efective in heating metals
Air is a poor conductor.

Convection
The transfer of heat energy in a fluid.
Commonly seen in the kitchen when you see boiling
water
Air in the atmosphere acts a fluid

Transfer of Heat Energy


Summary
1.Radiation
2.Conduction

3.Convection

Thermometers
Cotton Region Shelter
Max and Min Thermometers

Alcohol (min)
Mercury (max)

Max Min
Temperature
System (MMTS)

Thermistor

Temperature Units.

Earth-Atmosphere Energy
Balance

The Efects of Clouds

Nighttime: clouds keep the earth warmer


Daytime: clouds keep the earth cooler

Greenhouse Efect
The greenhouse
efect
is the
rise in (air
Prevents
heat loss mainly
from
convection
temperature
that
thethe
Earth
experiences
movement
carrying
away
heat)

because certain gases in the atmosphere


(water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide,
and methane, for example) trap energy
from the sun. Without these gases, heat
would escape back into space and Earths
average temperature would be about 60F
colder. Because of how they warm our
world, these gases are referred to as
greenhouse gases.

Hydrologic Cycle

Hydrologic Cycle
Evaporation

change of water from a liquid to a gas.


Stepping out of a shower or swimming
pool

Transpiration
evaporation of water from plants
Condensation
water vapor returns to a liquid (i.e.,
clouds, fog, mist, dew or frost)
Precipitation
Runof
Excessive precipitation that cannot be
absorbed by the ground.

Experiment
Water Everywhere (10
min)
- See Hydrologic Cycle
in action
- Items used:
- sandwich bag
-glass jar
- hot tap water
-ice cubes

Questions
A sunburn is caused by which method of
heat transfer:
A.) Radiation
B.) Convection
C.) Conduction
D.) Visible Light
Answer: Radiation

Questions
The layer of the atmosphere where most of the
worlds weather occurs is:
A.) Thermosphere
B.) Stratosphere
C.) Troposphere
D.) Hemisphere
E.) Mesosphere
Answer: Troposphere

Questions
At night, temperatures will normally be
cooler under cloudy skies than under clear
skies.
A.) True
B.) False
Answer: False

Questions
The brief cloud that forms when you exhale on a
cold winter day was formed because of:
A.) Precipitation
B.) Convection
C.) Evaporation
D.) Condensation
E.) Runoff
Answer: Condensation

Questions
The hydrologic cycle is:
A.) Convection, conduction, condensation,
Radiation
B.) Rain, Sunshine, Condensation, Flood
C.) Evaporation, Transpiration,
Condensation, Precipitation, Runoff
Answer: C

Questions
If you feel the heat in the handle of a
cooking pot, that heat was transferred to
the handle by:
A.) Convection
B.) Conduction
C.) Radiation
Answer: Conduction

Questions
It is _____ to breath on top of a mountain
than at sea level because there are
______ oxygen molecules at the summit.
A.) easier / more
B.) harder / more
C.) easier / less
D.) harder / less
Answer: harder / less

Acknowledgments
Jetstream website Southern Region
Headquarters , National Weather Service
www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream