Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

WELCOME TO OUR

PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO
LINGUISTICS

SEMANTICS &
PRAGMATICS
MAY, 28TH 2015
Danang, Eva nuryani, Eva noor,
Afif, Dewi, Armanda

MAIN
MENU
SEMANTICS

Yes

PRAGMATIC
S VS
SEMANTICS
Yes

PRAGMATICS

Yes

REASONS TO
LEARN
SEMANTICS &
PRAGMATICS
Yes

CHAPT
ER I

WHAT IS SEMANTIC ?

WHAT IS
SEMANTIC

THE DEFINITION
Semantics refers to the meaning of words in a language and the
meaning within the sentence.
Semantics considers the meaning of the sentence without the
context.
The field of semantics focus on three basic things: the relations
of words to the objects denoted by them, the relations of words
to the interpreters of them, and, in symbolic logic, the formal
relations of signs to one another (syntax)" [1].
Semantics is just the meaning that the grammar and vocabulary
impart, it does not account for any implied meaning.
Example :

CHAPT
ER II

NDS OF SEMANTIC MEANINGS

KINDS OF
SEMANTICS

LEXICAL MEANING

REFERENCIAL & NON


REFERENCIAL
MEANING

GRAMATICAL

CONCEPTUAL &
ASSOCIATION
MEANING

CONTEXTUAL
MEANING

DENOTATIVE &
CONOTATIVE
MEANING

LEXICAL MEANING

Lexical is the meaning compatible with


dictionary.
It need to know that dictionaries which not
actually so to exist the other means not
lexical like
figurative meaning.
Example:
I walked five kilos yesterday, and now
my legs ache.
The ache in my foot prevented me from
running fast.

GRAMATICAL MEANING
A grammatical process will happen after
covering grammatical process.
Example :
Cloth using a cloth
Horse Riding a horse
mis + understand + ing
= misunderstanding
copy + able = copable

CONTEXTUAL MEANING
Contextual meaning is word avaible in the one
context.
Example :
My brother felt by bike.
She have fallen in the examination.
He felt falling in love to my sister.
If price had fallen, we would have become
bankrupt

REFERENCIAL & NONREFERENCIAL MEANING


The words have meaning is called referencial and
havent meaning is called non referencial. The words
like horse, red, and picture (referencial) on the
contrary and, or, but and because (non referencial).
Deictic word is the words included pronoun like she/he,
you, and I. the words explain to room like here, there,
those, adverb of time like now, tomorrow, yesterday.
The words called indicator like this and those.
Example :
A word I statement belong to reference its not same :
I met with Mr Ahmad Ani said Ali.

CONSEPTUAL &
ASSOCIATION MEANING
Conceptual is the meaning of meaning by words have been free
from the contex
or association and association is the meaning of meaning by word
agree to there
1. Association meaning:
Conceptual
meaning:
Is relation of word with there is 2.
something
outside.

Red
:
Horse
It is a kind of colour
- Horse is kind of animal and has
It can be Brave or Corrupt
four legs
White :
It is a kind of colour
It can be Sacred or Clean

Crocodile :
It is a kind of animal
It can be Wicked or Crime

- Horse is the habitually of


human.

DENOTATIVE &
CONNOTATIVE MEANING
Denotative meaning is the orginal of meaning
or the thruth of meaning so denotative
meaning same with lexical meaning.
Connotative meaning is the other of
meaning additional to denotative meaning.
Example :
Pig :
Denotative : kind of animal
Connotative: group of people that gather be
once of group.

CHAPT
ER III

EMANTIC RELATIONS

SEMANTIC
RELATIONS

SYNONYM

ANTONYM

HOMONYM

HYPONYMOUS

SYNONYM
Synonym is the same of words have the
same of
meaning.
Example :
Able Capable (Mampu)
I shall be able to help when I get money
She is capable of teaching English to
young children
Beautiful Pretty (Cantik, Indah)
She is a beautiful girl

ANTONYM
Antonym is the pair of words have different
meaning.
Example:
Awake (Bangun) <> Asleep (Tidur)
I awake at three everymorning
He is asleeping soundly
Begin (Mulai) <> Finish (Selesai)
Andi begins to study Semantics
She finishes her job on time.

HOMONYM
It means two concepts, A and B, which are
expressed by the same symbol.
Example:
Bank
1. Both afinancial institution.
2. Aedge of a river.
Both are expressed by the word bank(the
word has two senses).

HYPONYMOUS
Hyponymous
means
a
relation
of
"inclusion.
e.g :
Acatis a type ofanimal;"car- is a VEHICLE" and "chicken- is a - BIRD".
It can be thought of as being a shorthand
for "is a type of". When all the relationships
in a system are "is a", it is the system a
taxonomy.

CHAPT
ER IV

RAGMATICS MEANING

WHAT IS
PRAGMATIC

Pragmatics and
contex

Physical
contex
Linguistics
contex
Social contex

pragmatics

Epidemics
contex
Direct speech
Speech act
Indirect
speech
Maxim of relevance: Be
relevant
Conversational
maxims

Maxim of
quantity
Maxim of
quality
Maxim of
manner

PRAGMATICS &
CONTEXT
Pragmatics is the study of how language is used and
of the effect of context on language.
In other meaning, pragmatic is concerned with the
study of meaning as communicated by a speaker or
(writer) and intrepeted by a listener or (reader).
SEVERAL TYPES OF CONTEXT:
1. Physical context
(objects surrounding the
communication, place and
time of the the
communication, what is going
on around, etc.)
a. I want that book.
( accompanied by pointing )
b. Be here at 9:00 tonight.
(place/time reference)

2. Linguistic context
( what has been said before in
the conversation.)
a. Linda came home late
yesterday. She thought nobody
would notice.
b. If my mom heard you talk like
that, . . .

PRAGMATICS &
CONTEXT
SEVERAL TYPES OF CONTEXT:
3. Social context
(The social relationship of the
people involved in communication.)
Ex:
a. To the President: #Mr. President,
stop bugging me and go home.
b. To your friend: #I do hereby
humbly request that you might
endeavor to telephone me with
news of your arrival at your
domicile when such arrival occurs.
Better: Call me when you get
home.
Note: In Linguistics, [#] is used to
mark
sentences
that
are
semantically or pragmatically odd.

4. Epistemic context
(what is known by both speaker
and hearer.)
Ex:
Epistemic:
from
Greek
episteme (knowledge), epi +
histanai (to place, determine).
E.g.:
system, stem, steed,
arrest,
instant,
understand,
static, prostitute, insist, ecstasy.

SPEECH ART
Speech act means the usage of language to accomplish
something.
1_ Direct speech acts: typical sentence form (e.g.
interrogative sentence for aquestion)
Could you close the door?
You left the door open.
Please close the door!
2_ Indirect speech acts (The form of the sentence suggest
a different purpose than it actually has.)
There are wolves on the prowl tonight.
I'm warning you to watch out for wolves.

CONVERSATIONAL
MAXIMS

According to H. Paul Grice (English


philosopher, 1913 88) there are
several
principles
which
people
implicitly obey when communicating
(assuming cooperative conversation).

MAXIM OF
RELEVANCE
1. Maxim of Relevance: Be relevant
Assuming B follows this maxim, A can
interpret their answer:
A: Is Sandy dating anyone these days?
B: Well, she goes to Cleveland every
weekend.
A: Can you pick the kids up at school this
afternoon?
B: I have piano lessons at 3 p.m.

MAXIM OF
QUANTITY
1. Make your contribution as informative as is required.
i.e., "Don't say too little"
2. Do not make your contribution more informative than is
required.
i.e., "Don't say too much"
We usually assume that people are telling us everything we
need to know. If they don't say something, then we assume
they simply don't know that information or it is not relevant.
A break of the maxim:
A: John and Mary have 2 children.
B: Are they planning on having a third?
A: They already have a third child.
X: How did Harry fare in court the other day?
Y: Oh, he got a fine. (True, but Harry also got a death
sentence)

MAXIM OF QUALITY
1. Do not say what you believe to be false.
(i.e., dont lie)

2.
Do not say that for which you lack adequate
evidence.
(i.e., dont say things which you cant back up)
One of the main uses of the maxims, aside from
describing how communication generally takes
place, is to signal the presence of indirect speech.

MAXIM OF MANNER
1. Avoid obscurity of expression.
2. Avoid ambiguity.
3. Be brief.
4. Be orderly.
These maxims relate to the form of speech you use. You
shouldnt use words you know your listeners wont
understand or say things which you know could be taken
multiple ways. You should also not state something in a long,
drawn-out way if you could say it in a much simpler manner.
Eg: Miss Singer sang The Star-Spangled Banner
( Miss Singer produced a series of sounds corresponding
closely to the score of The Star-Spangled Banner)

CHAPT
ER V

RAGMATICS MEANING

VS
SEMANTICS MEANING

PRAGMATICS VS
SEMANTICS
As the example above shows, considering
both the pragmatic and semantic meaning of
your sentence is important. Although
semantics is concerned only with the
meaning of the words and their interrelations,
pragmatics focuses on the meaning that the
speakers and listeners perceive. The following
examples
demonstrate
the
difference
between the two:
She hasnt taken a shower. (today)
He was so tired he could sleep for days.

PRAGMATICS VS
SEMANTICS
In both of these examples, the context and
pragmatic meaning really define the sentence.
Has she really not taken a shower ever?
Although the sentence says just that, the listener
could assume that she may not have taken a
shower today if they were not considering the
pragmatic meaning.
In the second example, we have a guy who is
so tired he can sleep for days. Is he really going to
sleep for days? Only the listeners and speaker
could tell you. He may be just expressing that he
is really tired or he could actually mean that he
plans on sleeping for days.

CHAPT
ER VI

REASONS TO LEARN
SEMANTICS & PRAGMATICS

REASONS TO LEARN
SEMANTICS &
PRAGMATICS
New language learners need to start
learning how to understand the pragmatic
meaning of the sentence in order to avoid
miscommunications. If they plan on fully
comprehending the language and the
meaning, they will have to learn how to
process the pragmatic meaning of the
sentence. Some ways to make the transition
easier is byteachingphrases and idioms
that are commonly said, but whose true
meanings differ from the semantic meaning.
An example of this is Crack the window.

REASONS TO LEARN
SEMANTICS &
PRAGMATICS
When teaching the pragmatic meaning
of phrases, explain to your students what the
actual meaning of the phrase is. In this case,
you would explain that crack the window
means to open the window so only a crack is
showing. Although full comprehension of
pragmatic meaning in language can take
time, students can speed up the process by
practicing the most common exceptions to
the semantic meaning.

Thanks for your


nice attention
Copyright@Danne