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History of higher

education libraries

Reported by:
Rochel A. Villar
BLIS- 3
June 26, 2010

Terms

An academic library is a library which serves an institution of


higher learning, such as a college or a university libraries in
secondary and primary schools are called school libraries. These
libraries serve two complementary purposes: to support the
school's curriculum, and to support the research of the
university faculty and students.
The University Grants Committee was an advisory
committee of the British government, which advised on the
distribution of grant funding amongst the British universities. It
was in existence from 1919 until 1989. Its functions have now
largely been taken over by the higher education funding
councils
Provision- something provided; a measure or other means for
meeting a need.
Higher education refers to a level of education that is
provided at academies, universities, colleges, vocational
universities, community colleges, liberal arts colleges, institutes
of technology and certain other collegiate-level institutions,
such as vocational schools, trade schools, and career colleges,
that award academic degrees or professional certifications.

Highlights in the history of books and libraries


People or
period

Antiquity

Approx. dates

Sumerians
Babylonians
Assyrians

3600 BC
626 BC

Egyptians

3000 BC

Greeks (Crete)

2d millennium BC
6th century BC- 146 BC

Greeks

Romans

173 BC- 476 AD

Kinds of
libraries

Examples of
libraries

Temple
Government
Private
Royal

Telloh
Borsipa
Nineveh

Temple
Government
Private

Gizeh
Thebes

Private
Royal
Government

Alexandrian library
Library at Pergamum
Aristotles library

Private,
Government,
Public, Christian,
Pagan

Ulpian Library

Middle Ages
12th century- 15th
century
Renaissance
Invention of
printing with
movable types

Private, Royal
Church, monastery,
university
15th century

1500- 1900
Europe

University of Paris

Public, Private,
Government, Royal

National, Private,
Public, University,
Royal

Vatican library
Oxford
Cambridge
British Museum
Bibliotheque Nationale

America

1607- 1776

College, University,
Private, Subscription

Harvard, Yale, William &


Mary
Princeton

America

18th and 19th century

College, university,
private, public,
Government

Library of Congress
Boston Public Library

America

20th century

Academic
Special
Public
School
Research
Private
Government
Rare Book Archives

New York Public


Library
Major university
libraries
Major public libraries

Development of Academic libraries

In United Kingdom
In the United States of America
In the Philippines

Approx. date

Events/
Development

19th Century

Establishment of
universities and their
libraries

20th Century

Libraries

1967

Emergence of the
Parry Report

1975

Atkinson Report

Person
responsible

continued
to grow gradually
UGC published a
report in 1921, which
made one of the most
supportive and
appreciative
statements about
libraries
Mr. Thomas Parry

1992

Follet Report

Sir Brian Follet

1994

Anderson Report

Prof. Michael
Anderson

2001

Establishment of
the Research
Support Libraries
Group

Sir Brian Follet

2003

Publishing of the
Report of the Group

2004

Founding of the
Research Libraries
Network

19th Century
Establishment

of mechanics

institutes
senior academic are the ones who
perform the role of the librarian
Edward Nicholson at the Bodleian,
founder of the Library Association

Approx. date

Events/
Development

19th Century

Establishment of
universities and their
libraries

20th Century

Libraries

1967

Emergence of the
Parry Report

1975

Atkinson Report

Person
responsible

continued
to grow gradually
UGC published a
report in 1921, which
made one of the most
supportive and
appreciative
statements about
libraries
Mr. Thomas Parry

20th Century
The UGC reports statement
The character and efficiency of a
university may be gauged by its
treatment of its central organ- the
library. We regard the fullest
provision for library maintenance as
the primary and most vital need in
the equipment of a university.

Approx. date

Events/
Development

19th Century

Establishment of
universities and their
libraries

20th Century

Libraries

1967

Emergence of the
Parry Report

1975

Atkinson Report

Person
responsible

continued
to grow gradually
UGC published a
report in 1921, which
made one of the most
supportive and
appreciative
statements about
libraries
Mr. Thomas Parry

Parry Report

Influenced by the new thinking about academic


libraries which had been brought about by the
creation of new universities
The library had been regarded as symbolic to the
universities themselves, and was placed centrally
on the campus
Recognized that the libraries are expensive to
build and maintain, and recommended that
universities should devote a mminimum of
around 6% of their revenue expenditure to the
library
Introduced library cooperation

Approx. date

Events/
Development

19th Century

Establishment of
universities and their
libraries

20th Century

Libraries

1967

Emergence of the
Parry Report

1975

Atkinson Report

Person
responsible

continued
to grow gradually
UGC published a
report in 1921, which
made one of the most
supportive and
appreciative
statements about
libraries
Mr. Thomas Parry

Atkinson Report

Propose the concept of a self- renewing


library
Recommended new space norms for
libraries
Urged greater cooperation and reliance on
interlibrary loan

1992

Follet Report

Sir Brian Follet

1994

Anderson Report

Prof. Michael
Anderson

2001

Establishment of the Sir Brian Follet


Research Support
Libraries Group

2003

Publishing of the
Report of the Group

2004

Founding of the
Research Libraries
Network

Follet Report
Background

Terms of reference:
a. )the planned expansion of higher education
b. ) the current potential impact of IT on
information provision
c. )the possibilities of greater cooperation and
sharing of capital and recurrent resources
Recommendations:
a. ) the development of library buildings
b. ) a program of development to enable the
exploitation of the potential of information
technology

Evidence
a. ) massive expansion of student numbers
b. )very little funding available for capital building
projects
c. )increase in cost which is far above the annual
rate of general inflation
d. )changes in teaching and learning methods in
institutions

Increasing proportions of mature and part- time


students, who tended to make different demands on
libraries
Modularization of degree courses
Learning methods which put more stress on student
centered learning
A decline in book purchasing by students

Recommendations
a.) information strategies
b.) library expenditure
c.) performance indicators
d.) staffing and staff management
e.) purchasing
f.) quality assessment and quality audit
g.) space and space management
h.) library cooperation in support of reading
i.) library provisions and the needs of
researchers
j.) information technology

Academic libraries in the


1990s
institutions were continuing to epand
their student numbers and to compete
for recognition of research excellence
Increasing IT capabilities
international collaboration was
becoming more significant
The issue of lifelong learning also
started to have an impact on
academic libraries

1992

Follet Report

Sir Brian Follet

1994

Anderson Report

Prof. Michael
Anderson

2001

Establishment of the Sir Brian Follet


Research Support
Libraries Group

2003

Publishing of the
Report of the Group

2004

Founding of the
Research Libraries
Network

Anderson report

the report of this body stressed the need


for all major libraries in UK to cooperate to
ensure that researchers had adequate
support
Establishment of the Research Support
Libraries Programme (RSLP)
1. supporting access to major library holdings
2. collaborative collection management projects
3. research support for humanities and social
science collections
4. targeted retrospective conversion of catalogues

Research Libraries
Network

Would carry out a strategic planning


and coordination role alongside the
universities themselves, the British
library and national libraries of Scotland
and Wales

Development of Academic Libraries in the


USA
Approx. dates

Event/ Development

American Revolution

Most books were imported from


England

1639- 1776

Local presses produced about


60 books per year

1776

Increase in publications in
America

1804

Catalog listed 1, 338 American


publications in print
John Harvard donated
approximately 300 of his books
to Harvard University, and so
he created the first academic
library in the colony

19th Century
Early 1800s

Serial publications gained in


importance
Harvard and Yale were the first
to establish endowments
during this period

1800- 1880

Literary society flourished

1841

Harvard constructed the first


freestanding library building

1876

Adoption of the Dewey Decimal


Classification System
John Hopkins University was
established and faulty used the
German seminar method for
instruction instead of the
recitation method
Departmental libraries
predominated

1873

Charles Eliot, long time


president of Harvard
University, stated that the
library is the heart of the
university

1856- 1876

Number of volumes in the


collection at Harvard
increased by an average
of 63% per year
Emphasis was primarily
on supporting the
curriculum rather than
research
Hours are extended and
services were improved

20th Century
By World War 1

Most academic libraries have


reference department

1947

Harvard opened the first library


building dedicated to
undergraduate services

1906- 1941

Carnegie Corporation of New


York gave grant funding to 248
college libraries to develop
book collections for
undergraduate students and to
108 institutions for library
buildings
Undergraduate libraries
developed and became a
measure of the quality of
library collections, this
authoritative guide to
purchasing of books became
known as the Shaw list

Development of Libraries in the


Philippines
The Colonial Philippine Library Period
(1565-1780)

The first collections came with the Spanish


missionaries. The earliest records speak of a private
collection in 1583. It was owned by Bishop Domingo
de Salazar and was probably the first of its kind in the
islands.
Other collections of an academic nature followed:
those of the Augustinian Convent of San Pablo, the
University of Santo Toms, and the College of San
Ignacio.
Printing was being introduced
Need and urgency made them use the xylographic
method to produce the first printed book in the
Philippines in 1593, the Doctrina Christiana

Philippine library developments during the 17th


and 18th centuries had a common feature: the
urgently felt need for books. Books from Europe
seemed to have poured constantly into the
Philippines, as attested to by news from different
parts of the Philippine islands.

Modest but Modern Philippine


Library (1780-1898)

The roots of the modern Philippine library may be


traced to the so-called Age of Enlightenment,
which seized and dominated European thought
during the 18th century.
he Sociedad Econmica was established in 1781
by Governor Jos de Basco y Vargas, and it
engaged mostly in the free distribution of books.
Although the libraries of the Sociedad did not yield
any record of holdings until 1877, its creation
signaled the beginning of a new era in Philippine
library history: popular and public reading.

A culture of reading, created in the


highest strata of Philippine society,
motivated the collection of books in
private libraries by Filipino scholars and
heroes of the 1896 and 1898 Philippine
War of the Independence.
This passion for collecting books and the
growing interest in library management
carried over a library tradition to the
20th century: the scholarly library.

Libraries in religious schools and the new


secular academic institutions had also grown
in importance, pushed by political and
ideological forces, but lacking in means and
handled by non-professional library staff.
The three seminaries of the Islands, the
religious schools in Manila, and the new
secular institutions, like the Escuela de Artes y
Oficios, had libraries supporting their
curriculum.
The University of Santo Toms had a collection
of 12,000 titles, the largest in the archipelago.
The library's holdings reached 20,000 by the
beginning of the 20th century.

Turnover in Philippine Modern


Library (1898-1945)

Opening of the American Circulating Library


Establishment of what we know today as
librarianship
American pioneers introduced modern library
standards, while Filipinos contributed with their
collections, scholarly support, and leadership.
But the foundation of Philippine librarianship was
forged by Lois Osborn, Mary Polk, and James
Robertson in 1914, through the establishment of
library courses in the University of the Philippines
and the Philippine Normal School.
The universe of the private sector comprised an
expanding number of schools and universities, a
few business libraries, private collections, and
libraries in the houses of religious institutions. In
1941, there were 19 private colleges and
universities.

Their libraries had grown from small


collections, managed by working students
and faculty, to comprehensive holdings,
maintained by trained librarians and
organized according to the new trends.
University of Santo Toms-which started
offering library courses in 1932; the
Ateneo de Manila-praised as one of the
best organized libraries in the Philippines;
the College of San Beda and a few others

Modern Libraries for the Philippine Republic


(from 1946 to Today)

"The outbreak of World War II in the Philippines in


December 1941 tolled the death-knell of almost all
the rich depositories of Filipiniana materials in the
country.
government libraries, school libraries, and
scholarly collections in religious houses, and in
most of the private universities were also
destroyed or looted.
During this half-century, libraries in the Philippines
had undergone re-establishment, organization, and
modernization, three stages that provide a fitting
division of our analysis into historical periods.

The books distributed among the public


libraries did not suit the needs of readers,
but the University of the Philippines
obtained three large shipments of
important publications through the
University of Michigan and the University
of Southern California at Los Angeles.
Librarianship has been pushed through
Increase in the growing body of library
professionals resulted to establishments of
library organizations
Automation of library services

To solve the problem, the conference of 1952


proposed a plan for the improvement of library
services outlined in a five-stage draft: (1)
regular meetings; (2) cooperative organization
and cataloguing; (3) the compilation of a union
catalog and a union list; (4) the publication of
a monthly listing of combined acquisitions;
and (5) cooperation with other government
agencies. The implementation of this plan was
assigned to a new department, the
Interdepartmental Reference Service (IDRS),
which spearheaded the establishment of the
Association of Special Libraries of the
Philippines (ASLP) in 1954.

At the turn of the millennium, the


collections and services of Philippine
libraries reflect both the national identity
and the country's level of technical
development. Much still needs to be done.
The enthusiasm of a few can change a
country when their efforts are channeled
into training, cooperation, and association.
And a strong will is necessary when
circumstances are most trying.