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Chapter4

DCBiasingBJTs

Biasing

Biasing: The
T DC voltages applied to a transistor in
order to turn it on so that it can amplify the AC signal.

Operating Point
The DC input
establishes an
operating or
quiescent point
called the Q-point.
Q-point

The Three States of Operation


Active or Linear Region Operation
BaseEmitter junction is forward biased
BaseCollector junction is reverse biased
Cutoff Region Operation
BaseEmitter junction is reverse biased
Saturation Region Operation
BaseEmitter junction is forward biased
BaseCollector junction is forward biased

DC Biasing Circuits

Fixed-bias circuit
Emitter-stabilized bias circuit
Collector-emitter loop
Voltage divider bias circuit
DC bias with voltage feedback

Fixed Bias

The Base-Emitter Loop


From Kirchhoffs voltage
law:
+VCC IBRB VBE = 0

Solving for base current:


IB

VCC VBE
RB

Collector-Emitter Loop
Collector current:
I C I B

From Kirchhoffs voltage law:


VCE VCC I C R C

Saturation
When the transistor is operating in saturation, current
through the transistor is at its maximum possible value.
VCC
I Csat
RC

VCE 0 V

Load Line Analysis


The end points of the load line are:
ICsat
IC = VCC / RC
VCE = 0 V

VCEcutoff
VCE = VCC
IC = 0 mA

The Q-point is the operating point:


where the value of RB sets the value of IB
that sets the values of VCE and IC

Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point

more

Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point

more

Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point

Emitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit

Adding a resistor
(RE) to the emitter
circuit stabilizes
the bias circuit.

Base-Emitter Loop
From Kirchhoffs voltage law:
VCC - I E R E - VBE - I E R E 0

Since IE = ( + 1)IB:
VCC - I B R B - ( 1)I B R E 0

Solving for IB:


IB

VCC - VBE
R B ( 1)R E

Collector-Emitter Loop
From Kirchhoffs voltage law:
I R V
I R V
0
E E
CE C C
CC

Since IE IC:
VCE VCC I C (R C R E )

Also:
VE I E R E
VC VCE VE VCC - I C R C
VB VCC I R R B VBE VE

Improved Biased Stability


Stability refers to a circuit condition in which the currents and voltages
will remain fairly constant over a wide range of temperatures and
transistor Beta () values.
Adding RE to the emitter improves the stability of a transistor.

Saturation Level

The endpoints can be determined from the load line.


VCEcutoff:

ICsat:
VCE VCC
I C 0 mA

VCE 0 V
IC

VCC
RC RE

Voltage Divider Bias


This is a very stable
bias circuit.
The currents and
voltages are nearly
independent of any
variations in .

Approximate Analysis
Where IB << I1 and I1 I2 :
VB

R 2 VCC
R1 R 2

Where RE > 10R2:


VE
RE
VE VB VBE

IE

From Kirchhoffs voltage law:


VCE VCC I C R C I E R E
IE IC
VCE V CC I C (R C R E )

Voltage Divider Bias Analysis


Transistor Saturation Level
V CC
I Csat I Cmax
RC RE
Load Line Analysis
Cutoff:

Saturation:
VCE VCC
I C 0mA

VCC
IC
RC RE

VCE 0V

DC Bias with Voltage Feedback


Another way to
improve the stability
of a bias circuit is to
add a feedback path
from collector to
base.
In this bias circuit
the Q-point is only
slightly dependent on
the transistor beta,
.

Base-Emitter Loop
From Kirchhoffs voltage law:
VCC I C R C I B R B VBE I E R E 0

Where IB << IC:

I' I I I
C C B
C

Knowing IC = IB and IE IC, the loop


equation becomes:
VCC I B R C I B R B VBE I B R E 0

Solving for IB:


IB

VCC VBE
R B (R C R E )

Collector-Emitter Loop
Applying Kirchoffs voltage law:
IE + VCE + ICRC VCC = 0
Since I C IC and IC = IB:
IC(RC + RE) + VCE VCC =0
Solving for VCE:
VCE = VCC IC(RC + RE)

Base-Emitter Bias Analysis


Transistor Saturation Level
V CC
I Csat I Cmax
RC RE

Load Line Analysis


Cutoff:

VCE VCC
I C 0 mA

Saturation:
V
CC
I
C R R
C
E

VCE 0 V

Transistor Switching Networks


Transistors with only the DC source applied can be used
as electronic switches.

Switching Circuit Calculations


Saturation current:
I Csat

VCC
RC

To ensure saturation:
I
I B Csat
dc

Emitter-collector resistance
at saturation and cutoff:
R sat

VCEsat
I Csat

R cutoff

VCC
I CEO

Switching Time

Transistor switching times:

t on t r t d
t off t s t f

Troubleshooting Hints

Approximate voltages
VBE .7 V for silicon transistors
VCE 25% to 75% of VCC

Test for opens and shorts with an ohmmeter.


Test the solder joints.
Test the transistor with a transistor tester or a curve tracer.
Note that the load or the next stage affects the transistor operation.

PNP Transistors
The analysis for pnp transistor biasing circuits is the same
as that for npn transistor circuits. The only difference is
that the currents are flowing in the opposite direction.