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MATERIALS SCIENCE

AALearners
LearnersGuide
Guide
&
ENGINEERING
AN INTRODUCTORY E-BOOK
Anandh Subramaniam

Project coordination

Kindly send your


comments and feedback
for improvement at this
email address

FB408, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)


Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016
Phone: (+91) (512) 259 7215, Fax: (+91) (512) 259 7505
Email: anandh@iitk.ac.in, URL: home.iitk.ac.in/~anandh

Kantesh Balani
Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016
Phone: (+91) (512) 259 6194, Fax: (+91) (512) 259 7505
Email: kbalani@iitk.ac.in, URL: http://home.iitk.ac.in/~kbalani/
Funded by MHRD, Govt. of India through NMEICT

MATERIALS SCIENCE
&
ENGINEERING
AALearners
LearnersGuide
Guide
Anandh Subramaniam
Kantesh Balani

To
My Parents
&
My Daughter Luminaa
MHRD, Govt. of India through NMEICT

Basic References
Though the reader can consult the following books; the contents of the e-book course may
often differ in the rigour and details from these and other books.
Materials Science and Engineering (5th Edition)
V. Raghavan
Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 2004.
Callister's Materials Science and Engienering
William D Callister (Adapted by R. Balasubramaniam)
Wiley Inida (P) Ltd., 2007.
The Science and Engineering of Materials
Donald. R. Askeland & Pradeep Phul
Cengage Learning, 2006.
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What will you learn?


Introduction to diverse kinds of engineering materials
Overview of what determines the properties of materials and how we engineer
them
Structure of materials and various lengthscales: crystal structure, electromagnetic
structure, defect structure, microstructure
Stability and metastability of materials: the thermodynamics and kinetics
The tools used in materials science: x-ray diffraction, phase diagrams, TTT
diagrams
Properties of materials: elasticity, plasticity, fracture, fatigue, creep, conduction,
magnetism
This ebook hopefully will prove an invaluable guide to a learner of materials science & engineering
(Credits, Syllabus, Marks are just incidental!)

Click here to take a diagnostic test to see if you are ready for this course!
A teachers job is to uncover and not cover the syllabus- Richard M Felder

Guidelines to Readers

The contents have been developed such that most of the material is in the form of figures, flow charts, video graphics
and less is in the form of text. Hence, instead of saying happy reading we wish you happy viewing!

Instruction for viewing

Using Powerpoint files (.ppt). Click on the relevant hyperlink on the Navigator page.
In the PowerPoint presentations Right Click on the Menu bar to launch the web toolbar
(you can use this to navigate back and forth)
Using .pdf (Portable Document Format) files. Adobe Acrobat Reader- freeware (http://get.adobe.com/uk/reader/) will
be required for this purpose.
Using Open Office. Powerpoint (.ppt) and Open Office Presentation (.odp) files can be opened with Open Office (
http://download.openoffice.org/).

VIEWING POWERPOINT FILES

Start with the PowerPoint files by double clicking on any file.


To start PowerPoint (PPT) presentation from the first slide press F5
To start PowerPoint (PPT) presentation from the current slide press Shift + F5
To scroll down slides use Page Down or
Text hyperlinks are underlined in blue colour

OTHER TIPS IN VIEWING

Text boxes and figures may also be hyperlinked


(curser has to be placed on the item to see that it is hyperlinked- arrow will change into a hand( ))
Some of the hyperlinks may have screen tips place curser on the hyperlink to see tip
If you want to open a hyperlink as a separate presentation Click on the hyperlink
If you want to open a hyperlink within the current window in the current presentation
press Control + Click on the hyperlink (this will work if you have launched the PPT file directly by double clicking)
From a 'hyperlinked presentation' to come back to the main presentation press Esc

Note on accompanying videos

At various places in the chapters there are hyperlinks to videos (.mpg) files to view these you will need an
appropriate viewer (e.g. windows media player). (.gif graphics will directly play inside .ppt)
A listing of these videos is given in the video_library.ppt
Though the chapters are complete in themselves with figures, these videos give classroom style explanation of
concepts using models.

Since concepts are presented in presentation mode,


READ EVERY LINE AND EVERY WORD

A note on the platform chosen for presentation


Windows (XP) based applications have been used to develop the course material.
These include: Word, Excel and Powerpoint (2003 versions)
Users of Linux and other platforms may use the pdf version of the Word and Powerpoint files.
Additionally, students not having access to Microsoft Office may use the OpenOffice freeware to open
the MS office files:
http://www.openoffice.org/ (download and install: http://download.openoffice.org/)
(there might be some losses in conversion- which is usually not major if Office 2003 is used along with Open Office 3.1)

The following hyperlinks are to file-wise substructure. Content-wise substructure will appear in respective chapters.
1. CHAPTER 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction to Materials
1.2 Hierarchy of Lengthscales

7. CHAPTER 7: Diffusion in Solids


8. CHAPTER 8: Phase Transformations
Heat Treatment

2. CHAPTER 2: Equilibrium and Kinetics


2.1 Thermodynamics
2.2 Kinetics
3. CHAPTER 3: Crystal Geometry
3.1 Overview, Geometry of Crystals
3.2 Miller Indices
3.3 X-ray Diffraction
4. CHAPTER 4: Structure of Solids
4.1 Metallic Solids
4.2 Ionic and Covalent Solids
5. CHAPTER 5: Crystal Imperfections
5.1 Overview
5.2 Point Defects (0D)
5.3 Dislocations (1D)
5.4 Two Dimensional and Volume Defects (3D)
6.

CHAPTER 6: Phase Diagrams

Surface Energ
Ener

Solidification, Crystallization and Glass Transition


Recovery, Recrystallization and Grain Growth

9. CHAPTER 9: Mechanical Behaviour of Materials


5.1 Introduction
5.2 Elasticity
5.3 Plasticity
5.4 Creep
5.5 Fracture
5.6 Fatigue
10. CHAPTER 10: Electrical Conductivity
11. CHAPTER 11: Semiconductors
11. CHAPTER 12: Magnetic Materials

Phase Diagrams Detailed

Guidelines to Teachers & Instructors


The course contents are extensive in some places and instructors may want to reduce the
content in some topics.
Instructors may download the appropriate files and delete the portion not needed. This will
help tailor the contents for any specific syllabus or need. (I.e. can copy left, right and centre!!)
Any feedback or comments on improvement from instructors and students alike would be
highly appreciated (anandh@iitk.ac.in).

Hyperlink library
Basics_of_Thermodynamics.ppt
bonding_and_properties.ppt

Laue_picture.ppt
line_broadening.ppt

close_packed_crystals.ppt
connection_between_symmetry_and_geometry.ppt
constructive_interference.ppt
defect_association.ppt
defect_in_defect.ppt

magnetic_groups.ppt
Making_crystals.ppt
models_for_crystal_structures.ppt
Motifs.ppt

dislocation_stress_fields.ppt
mystry_missing_lattices.ppt
from_L+M_SG.ppt
Graphene_crystal.ppt
HCP.ppt
interfaces.ppt
ionicity_of_bond.ppt
lattice.ppt

other_signals_xray.ppt
ordered_structures.ppt
parallopiped_space_filling.ppt

Hyperlink library continued


UC_OR_lattice.ppt
peierls_stress.ppt
Point_groups_detailed.ppt
proof_rotations_crystal.ppt

Understanding_stress.ppt

Quasicrystals.ppt
unit_cell.ppt
reciprocal_lattice.ppt
simple_to_complex_crystal_structures.ppt

video_library.ppt

size_factor_compounds.ppt
voids_in_crystals.ppt
space.ppt
weak_interactions.ppt
structure_factor_calculations.ppt
sublattice.ppt
symmetry.ppt

Symmetry_create_1D_lattice.ppt

symmetry_of_solids.ppt

XRD_lattice_parameter_calculation.ppt
XRD_sample_patterns.ppt

Acknowledgments
MHRD is acknowledged for funding for the project via the NMEICT.
I thank Prof. Rajesh Prasad (Applied Mechanics, IIT Delhi) for his fundas and teaching
style.