Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

INDUSTRIES

Yousaf Ali
Akbar Khan
BCV-6

Industry is the sector of


the economy concerned
with the production of
goods and services.

Industry has 4 sectors...

Primary

Tertiary

Secondary

Quaternary

Major businesses in this


sector include
agriculture, fishing,
forestry and all mining
and quarrying industries
The primary sector of
industry is also called
extraction. It generally
involves changing
natural resources into
primary products.
Most products from
this sector are
considered raw
materials for other
industries.

Primary industry is a larger sector in developing countries; for instance,


animal husbandry is more common in Africa than in Japan.
4

The secondary sector (manufacturing)


produces finished, usable products. This
sector of industry generally takes the
output of the primary sector and
manufactures finished goods or where
they are suitable for use by other
businesses, for export, or sale to
domestic consumers.

* Aerospace manufacturing
* Automobile manufacturing
* Brewing industry
* Chemical industry
* Clothing industry
* Electronics
* Engineering
* Energy industries
* Metalworking
* Steel production
* Software engineering
* Telecommunications
Industry
* Tobacco industry

This sector is often divided into light industry and heavy industry.

The tertiary sector of industry is


also known as the service sector
or the service industry.
It involves the provision of services to
businesses as well as final consumers.
Services may involve the transport,
distribution and sale of goods from
producer to a consumer, or may involve
the provision of a service, such as in pest
control or entertainment.

News media
Leisure industry/hotels
Consulting
Healthcare/hospitals
Waste disposal
Estate agents
Business services
Restaurants
Local government services
Central government
services
Education
Law and order

Goods may be transformed in


the process of providing a
service, as happens in the
restaurant industry or in
equipment repair. However, the
focus is on people interacting
with people and serving the
customer rather than 6

The quaternary sector is the research


industry.

Industrial research looks for new ways to cut costs, find new
markets, produce new ideas, new production methods and
methods of manufacture.
7

The 4 Sectors of Industry are interrelated. An


individual industry will often use more than one
sector in order to produce products.

On the next slide we will see an example of


how the four sectors relate together in the
production of cotton clothes, part of the
fashion industry.

COTTON IN THE FASHION


INDUSTRY...

PRIMARY

Cotton is grown and


picked on a cotton
farm

SECONDARY
Cotton is processed to
cloth, which is, in turn,
sewn in to clothing.

TERTIARY

Cotton clothes (eg


jeans, shirts etc) are
sold in high street
shops.
9

Leather manufacture in a
tannery: secondary

A shoe factory in hanoi:


secondary

Models and fashion shows:


tertiary.

The entire fashion industry involves a great


number of different products and services, all of
which can be classified according to industrial
sector...
Sheep farming
and sheering
for wool
production:
primary
Cosmetics research:
quaternary

10

LOCATION OF
INDUSTRY
Anindustryconsistsoffirmsthateachhavecommoncharacteristicsin
termsofthenatureoftheireconomicactivity.Thechemicalindustry,for
example,ismadeupofhundredsoffirmsthathavethecommon
characteristicofbeinginvolvedineitherdealingwithormanufacturing
chemicals.Thesechemicalsmightbeusedforawidevarietyofdifferent
processes,includingagriculture,construction,medicinesandawide
rangeofothers-textiles,plastics,paper,cleaningandsoon.
Individualfirmsmightchoosetosetuptheirbusinessinavarietyof
locations.Insomecases,businesseswithcommoncharacteristicsare
verywidelyspread.Taketheexampleofsolicitorsorplumbers:thereis
averylargenumberoffirmsoperatinginthisindustrybuttheirlocation
tendstobespreadfairlyevenlyacrossthecountry.
Otherindustriestendtohavefirmsthatmightbeclusteredina
particulararea.Thechemicalindustryisoneexample:therearemajor
groupsofchemicalfirmslocatedinandaroundtheNorthEastof
England,especiallyonTeessidenearMiddlesbrough.

Thecrucialfactorinmanycaseswillbelocatingwhere
costsofproductioncanbeminimised.Planninglawsand
regulationsmightmeanthatitisnotalwayspossibleto
setupinthepreferredlocation.Theeconomist(and
latersociologist)AlfredWeber(1868-1958)pioneered
theworkonlocationofindustrywaybackin1910.His
theorywasbasedontheprinciplethatabusinesswould
seektolocatewherecostscouldbeminimised.
Ifthereweretwolocations,aandb,
wherearepresentedalocationwherethecostofsetting
upwaslowerthanb,thenthefirmwouldalwaysgoto
a.

FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION


Thereareanumberoffactorsthatwillinfluencewhereabusinesswill
choosetolocate.Thefollowingcouldallbeconsideredasimportantbutfor
somebusinesses,someofthefactorswillbemoreimportantthanothers:-

a.) Nearness to Power


b.) Nearness to Market
c.) Nearness to a Supply of Raw Materials
d.) Nearness to a Supply of Labour
e.) Proximity of Other Businesses - External
Economies of Scale
f.) The Reputation of an Area
g.) Transport and Communication Services

SETTING OF AN INDUSTRY
The setting of an industry should be carefully
decided by taking into acount the various
requirements of that industry.
The setting of industries in residential localaties is
not desirable.ut not in all cases some might be
allowed in the residential areas.
While setting an industry provisions should be
made for future growth and expansion.

INDUSTRIAL
TOWNSHIPS

In order to decrease the load on resiential areas


an to provide better facilities to industries
various industrial towns have been setup by
government.
The important aspect of such townships are:a.) Layout
b.)Management
c.)services
d.)Site
e.)Size

SOME POSSIBLE MEASURES OF


GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION INCLUDE:
1.

Provision of infrastructure in areas


established for industrial development
2.Provision of land (often cheaper and more
extensive land) for industrial use. e.g. Tai Po
and Fo Tan Industrial Estates in the N.T, Hong
Kong

3. Establishment of manufacturing industries in


depressed regions and new industrial areas
(a) In countries of planned economies, e.g. China,
the Chinese government has established a
large petroleum refinery and petrochemical
works at Urumqi in Xinjiang in order to achieve
regional economic balance and industrial
dispersion.
(b) In countries of mixed economies, e.g. Britain
and France, the governments can establish
nationalized plants in depressed regions and
rural areas.

e.g. The British government has


established new factories such as Ford
at Hale wood (near Liverpool), British Leyland
at Bathgate (near Edinburgh), etc.

4. Introduction of favorable terms of trade to


industries in order to attract foreign investment
and the establishment of technology-intensive
industries
e.g. By granting tax concessions (low rates on
profit taxes)

5.

Protection of the country's own-industries


and/or new industries
e.g. By imposing tariffs on imported finished
products or raw materials; and imposing
quotas on imports

9 Town planning measures and strong central


planning
These may :
(a) limit the establishment of repulsive industries (e.g.
leather tanning)and environmentally dangerous
industries (e.g. chemical works) to some specified
regions
(b) encourage the development of cleaner industries
and force the manufacturers to adopt sewage
treatment of their waste products before
discharge/disposal

Rourkela is an industrial township in Orissa. It is


also the commercial capital of Odisha/Orissa. It
has a huge iron; steel manufacturing base.
Besides, there are many units producing sponge
iron, cement, Refractories etc. Rourkela Steel
Plant, a unit of SAIL is a one of the largest steel
manufacturing facilities in India. There are many
small scale industry in Rourkela catering to the
need of RSP and other large industrial units.
The town has population of all communities and
can be called a cosmopolitan town. it has large
population of people from all religion including
Hindu, Muslim, Sikhs, Christians.

Any Questions?

THANK YOU