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Introduction to PL/SQL

Lecture 0 – Self Study

Akhtar Ali

Overview       Overview of PL/SQL Development of a coded block Interacting with an Oracle database Controlling PL/SQL process flow Cursor handling Error handling .

Notes on SQL are on Blackboard . insert.Re-visiting SQL    Instructions to Oracle identifying the information you wish to select. delete or update SQL*Plus is Oracle's simple interface for interaction with Oracle DBMS using SQL.

PL/SQL . Managed centrally within the Oracle database. .introduction     Procedural extension allowing for modularity. Allows for advanced error handling Communicates natively with other oracle database objects. loops and logical constructs. variable declaration.

Other Databases   All have procedural facilities SQL is not functionally complete    Lacks full facilities of a programming language So top up functionality by embedding SQL in a procedural language PL/SQL techniques are specific to Oracle  but procedures and functions can be ported to other systems .

Why use PL/SQL     Manage business rules – through middle layer application logic. Generate code for triggers Generate code for interface Enable database-centric client/server applications .

Multiple copies of executable code on the decentralised system – multiple copies to maintain leading to increase difficulty in maintaining the system Serve r . End.Centralised V’s De-centralised Begin : Serve r End. End. Common copy of executed code – one copy to maintain Begin Begin Begin : : : End.

Advantages of using PL/SQL to access Oracle     PL/SQL is managed centrally within the database Code is managed by the DBA and execution privileges are managed in the same way as with other objects PL/SQL objects are first-class Oracle DB objects Easy to read  With modularity features and error handling .

function.Centralised control  Enables DBA to:   Specify rules in one place (as procedure. package in PL/SQL) Force user access through the predefined PL/SQL so users cannot write their own procedural code and use this instead.  Define for instance security privileges giving users access to table(s) only through a particular procedure .

Using PL/SQL as a programming language  Permits all operations of standard programming languages e. WHEN-END LOOP.    Provides loops for controlling iteration   Conditions IF-THEN-ELSE-END IF.g. FOR-END LOOP. Jumps GOTO LOOP-EXIT. WHILE-END LOOP Allows extraction of data into variables and its subsequent manipulation .

Modules in PL/SQL There are 4 types of modules in PL/SQL  Procedures – series of statements may or may not return a value  Functions – series of statements must return a single value  Triggers – series of PL/SQL statements (actions) executing after an event has triggered a condition (ECA)  Packages – collection of procedures and function that has 2 parts:  a listing and a body. .

v_product number. Body of procedure END.Procedures Creation command Create or replace procedure sample1 as Variable declarations v_num1 constant number := 2. .5. v_num2 constant number := 4. BEGIN v_product := v_num1 * v_num2.

g. the char data type will pad the value stored to the full length declared. Date – used to store dates Long – used to store large blocks of text up to 2 gigabytes in length (limited operations) .Use of Data-Types     Number – used to store any number Char(size) & varchar2(size) e.: char(10) – used to store alphanumerical text strings.

More data-types    Long raw – stores large blocks of data stored in binary format Raw – stores smaller blocks of data in binary formal Rowid – used to store the special format of rowids in the database .

REAL. DECIMAL. INT – these are numerical data types that are a subset of number. . INTEGER. Binary_integer – binary format for number type but can not be stored in database unless converted first. Character – same as char Boolean – true/false value Table/record – tables can be used to store the equivalent of an array while records store the variables with composite data types.Non-database Data Types      DEC.

Using SQL in procedures    Select values into PL/SQL variables  using INTO Record.element notation will address components of tuples (dot notation) %rowtype allows full rows to be selected into one variable V_employee employee%rowtype Empid empname addr1 addr2 addr3 postcode grade salary .

salary + 1000 where empid = v_employee. Begin select * into v_employee Selects entire row of data into 1 variable called v_employee from employee where empid = 65284.empid.Example (Anonymous Block of Code) Declare v_employee employee%rowtype. End. Is updating the value of salary based on selected element of a variable . update employee set salary = v_employee.

%rowcount.Cursor overview     Very powerful in PL/SQL modules Allows more than one set of data to be retrieved and accessed at the same time in loops Sets are created by executing SQL statements embedded in the PL/SQL code Cursor attributes .%notfound. %found & %isopen .

.Error handling     Prevents database locking Ensures that errors are presented to the user in a sensible format Makes code robust Essential when using PL/SQL as formal programming language or interfacing with Oracle applications.