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# Quantitative research

(Qnr)
and
Qualitative research (Qlr)

Numbers-based

## Quantitative research refers to

the manipulation of numbers to make claims,
provide evidence, describe phenomena, determine
relationships, or determine causation.

Deductive

## usually tests a hypothesis based on

previous research. Numbers are important to
determine when a hypothesis has been confirmed
or not. You are looking FOR something.

Generalizable

## through statistical or mathematical

modeling,
can make predictions
about future events
Quantitative
research

## Quantitative research often starts with

an expectation about what you are
going to find and then tests that
expectation.
Follows a scientific method:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Define the question

Gather information and resources
Form hypothesis
Design experiment
Perform experiment and collect data
Analyze data
Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a
starting point for new hypotheses
8. Publish results

Quantitative research

a.
b.

## The influence of listening to English music in

the listening skills of the students.
The effects of the use of English literature on
the reading skills of students.

The effects of X on Y

## Defining the question, often called your research

question, determines the scope of what you are
able to research. A good research question should
be (FINER):
Feasible is it a realistic question to ask?
Interesting will we learn something from it?
Novel have very few people done it?
Ethical does it respect the participants?
Relevant will we be able to do something with
the findings?

Research Plan
As

## we follow this scientific method, recognize

that it really is just a research plan, but in a
more focused manner. You would still benefit
much from working out the following BEFORE
you conduct your study.

Research Question
Method
Plan
Timeline

Qualitative Researchinvolves
finding out what people think,
and how they feel - or at any rate,
what they say they think and how
they say they feel. This kind of
information is subjective. It
involves feelings and impressions,
rather than Research
numbers
Qualitative

Qualitative

## research is multimethod in focus,

involving an interpretative, naturalistic approach
to its subject matter.

Qualitative

## and their thoughts) in their natural settings,

attempting to make sense of, or interpret,
phenomena in terms of the meanings people
bring to them.

Qualitative Research

## Qualitative research involves the studied

use and collection of a variety of empirical
materials
case
study,
personal
experience,
introspective,
life
story,
interview,
observational,
historical,
interactional, and visual texts-that describe
routine and problematic moments and
meanings in individuals lives.

Qualitative Research

The

English Camps.

The

## characteristics of effective teachers

for young learners.

Focused

## on research questions that call for

real-life contextual understandings, multilevel perspectives, and cultural influences.

Employes

## rigorous quantitative research

assessing magnitude and frequency of
constructs and rigorous qualitative research
exploring the meaning and understanding
of constructs.

Intentionally

## integrates or combines these

methods to draw on the strengths of each.

## Mixed methodology research

reasons
for using
ToTypical
view problems
from multiple
perspectives so
as to enhance
and enrich the meaning of a
mixed
methods
singular perspective.

To

## merge quantitative and qualitative data to

develop a more complete understanding of a
problem; to develop a complementary picture; to
compare, validate, or triangulate results; to
provide illustrations of context for trends, or to
examine processes/experiences along with
outcomes

methods
To

## contextualize the information, to take a

macro picture of a system (e.g., a school) and
add in information about individuals (e.g.,
working at different levels in the school).

To

## have one database build on another. When a

quantitative phase follows a qualitative phase,
the intent of the investigator may be to develop
a survey instrument, an intervention, or a
program informed by qualitative findings