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Quantitative research

(Qnr)
and
Qualitative research (Qlr)

Numbers-based

Quantitative research refers to


the manipulation of numbers to make claims,
provide evidence, describe phenomena, determine
relationships, or determine causation.

Deductive

usually tests a hypothesis based on


previous research. Numbers are important to
determine when a hypothesis has been confirmed
or not. You are looking FOR something.

Generalizable

through statistical or mathematical


modeling,
can make predictions
about future events
Quantitative
research

Quantitative research often starts with


an expectation about what you are
going to find and then tests that
expectation.
Follows a scientific method:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Define the question


Gather information and resources
Form hypothesis
Design experiment
Perform experiment and collect data
Analyze data
Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a
starting point for new hypotheses
8. Publish results

Quantitative research

Quantitative research on:


a.
b.

The influence of listening to English music in


the listening skills of the students.
The effects of the use of English literature on
the reading skills of students.

The effects of X on Y

Lets see an example

Defining the question, often called your research


question, determines the scope of what you are
able to research. A good research question should
be (FINER):
Feasible is it a realistic question to ask?
Interesting will we learn something from it?
Novel have very few people done it?
Ethical does it respect the participants?
Relevant will we be able to do something with
the findings?

Defining the question.

Research Plan
As

we follow this scientific method, recognize


that it really is just a research plan, but in a
more focused manner. You would still benefit
much from working out the following BEFORE
you conduct your study.

Research Question
Method
Plan
Timeline

Qualitative Researchinvolves
finding out what people think,
and how they feel - or at any rate,
what they say they think and how
they say they feel. This kind of
information is subjective. It
involves feelings and impressions,
rather than Research
numbers
Qualitative

Qualitative

research is multimethod in focus,


involving an interpretative, naturalistic approach
to its subject matter.

Qualitative

Researchers study things (people

and their thoughts) in their natural settings,


attempting to make sense of, or interpret,
phenomena in terms of the meanings people
bring to them.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research involves the studied


use and collection of a variety of empirical
materials
case
study,
personal
experience,
introspective,
life
story,
interview,
observational,
historical,
interactional, and visual texts-that describe
routine and problematic moments and
meanings in individuals lives.

Qualitative Research

The

perceptions of students towards


English Camps.

The

characteristics of effective teachers


for young learners.

Lets see an example

Focused

on research questions that call for


real-life contextual understandings, multilevel perspectives, and cultural influences.

Employes

rigorous quantitative research


assessing magnitude and frequency of
constructs and rigorous qualitative research
exploring the meaning and understanding
of constructs.

Mixed methodology research

Uses multiple methods (e.g., intervention trials

and in-depth interviews).


Intentionally

integrates or combines these


methods to draw on the strengths of each.

Mixed methodology research

reasons
for using
ToTypical
view problems
from multiple
perspectives so
as to enhance
and enrich the meaning of a
mixed
methods
singular perspective.

To

merge quantitative and qualitative data to


develop a more complete understanding of a
problem; to develop a complementary picture; to
compare, validate, or triangulate results; to
provide illustrations of context for trends, or to
examine processes/experiences along with
outcomes

Typical reasons for using mixed


methods
To

contextualize the information, to take a


macro picture of a system (e.g., a school) and
add in information about individuals (e.g.,
working at different levels in the school).

To

have one database build on another. When a


quantitative phase follows a qualitative phase,
the intent of the investigator may be to develop
a survey instrument, an intervention, or a
program informed by qualitative findings