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Operating System Concepts

Operating System Concepts

What is an Operating System ?

An operating system is a software program that provides an

interface between the user and the computer and manages
thousands of applications.
The operating system is stored on disk, but it needs to be
loaded into memory (RAM) once the computer is switched on
and before any other program can be run.
The operating system is automatically loaded into memory as
soon as you turn on, or boot, the computer. The term booting
refers to the process of loading an operating system into a
computers memory. This process is done by a program
(called the bootstrap loader) that is stored permanently in the
computers electronic circuitry (usually on a ROM chip).

1) Managing Resources

These programs coordinate all the computers device

resources including keyboard, mouse, printer, monitor,
storage devices and memory.
An operating system creates a file structure on the
computer hard drive where user data can be stored and
retrieved. When a file is saved, the operating system
saves it, attaches a name to it, and remembers where it
put the file for future use.

2) Providing a user interface

Users interact with application programs and
computer hardware through a user interface.
Almost all operating systems today provide a
windows-like Graphical
User Interface (GUI) in which graphic objects
called icons are used to represent commonly
used features.

3) Running applications

These programs load and run applications such as word

processors and spreadsheets. Most operating systems
support multitasking, or the ability to run more than one
application at a time.
When a user requests a program, the operating system
locates the application and loads it into the primary
memory or RAM of the computer. As more programs are
loaded, the operating system must allocate the computer

4) Support for built-in utility programs

The operating system uses utility
programs for maintenance and repairs.
Utility programs help identify problems,
locate lost files, repair damaged files, and
backup data.

5) Control to the computer hardware

The operating system sits between the programs and

the Basic Input Output System (BIOS). The BIOS
controls the hardware. All programs that need
hardware resources must go through the operating
The operating system can either access
the hardware through the BIOS or through the device

Various Type of Operating

Batch System
Multiprogramming System
Distributed System

Operating System Concepts

Batch processing system

Batch processing was the very first method of
processing which was adapted.
The main purpose of this system was to enable
the computer to move automatically from one
job to another, without the operator having to
The computer would then process the jobs
one at a time without further human intervention.


How it works?
The OS keeps several job in memory simultaneously
The OS picks and begin to execute on of the jobs in
the memory.
Job may have to wait for some task, such as an I/O
operation to complete.
In multiprogramming system, the operating system
simply switch to and execute another job.
When that job need to wait, the CPU is switched to
the another job and so on.
At least one job needs to execute, the CPU is never

Operating System Concepts

Job 1
Job 2
Job 3

Distributed System
Communication path between two or more
Distributed system depend on networking
for their functionality.
For being able to communicate , distributed
system are able to share computational
task and provide a rich of features to users.
OS system support all type of protocol.

Operating System Concepts

Concepts Operating System

Time sharing


An operating system that gives you the

perception of 2 or more tasks/jobs/processes
running at the same time. It does this by
dividing system resources amongst these
tasks/jobs/processes. And switching between
the tasks/jobs/processes while they are
executing very fast over and over again.


Single user cannot keep CPU and I/O devices

busy at all time
Multiprogramming organizes jobs (code and data)
so CPU always has one to execute
A subset of total jobs in system is kept in memory
One job selected and run via job scheduling
When it has to wait (for I/O for example), OS
switches to another job

Time sharing

A multi-tasking os allows multiple jobs to be executed

simultaneously by switching among them. Usually CPU
process only one task at a time but the switching is so fast
that it looks like CPU is executing multiple processes at a
Multitasking OS is a OS that allows a user to simultaneously
run various tasks at the same time...actually it is not so
because there is only one CPU..the concept behind this is
time sharing...operating system divides CPU time among
various tasks but this time is very small(nanosecond) that user
feel that all programs or tasks are running simultaneously......


Buffering is a method of overlapping the computation of a job

with its execution.
It temporarily stores input or output data in an attempt to
better match the speeds of two devices such as a fast CPU
and a slow disk drive
If, for example, the CPU writes information to the buffer, it can
continue in its computation while the disk drive stores the
A temporary storage area, usually in RAM. The purpose of
most buffers is to act as a holding area, enabling the CPU to
manipulate data before transferring it to a device.


Spooling refers to a process of transferring data by placing

it in a temporary working area where another program may
access it for processing at a later point in time.
With spooling, the disk is used as a very large buffer.
Usually complete jobs are queued on disk to be completed
A typical example is the spooler for a printer. When a print
job is issued, the spooler takes care of it, sending it to the
printer if it is not busy, or storing it on disk otherwise.

Operating System Structure

Networked and distributed

Operating System Concepts