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# EEM 467

DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
Linear Block Codes

Lecturer

Assist.Prof.Dr. Nuray At

## Designing codes for the reliable transmission of digital information

over a noisy channel.
Codes can either correct or merely detect errors
Codes that can detect errors are called error-detecting codes
Codes that can correct errors are called error-correcting codes
Error correction is more complex than error detection!
Error control codes are classified into
Block Codes
Convolutional Codes

Channel Coding

## The channel encoder introduces systematic redundancy into

the data stream
The combined objective of the channel encoder and decoder is
to minimize the effect of channel noise
Channel Coding Theorem:
Given a DMS X with entropy H(X) and a DMC with capacity C, if
, there exists a coding scheme for which the source
output can be transmitted over the channel with an arbitrary

Block Codes

## Data sequence is divided into sequential blocks each k bits

long
Each k-bit block is converted into an n-bit block, where n > k
The resultant block code is called (n,k) block code and the ratio
k/n is called
code rate.

## Linear Block Codes

Binary Field: The set K = {0, 1} is a binary field. The binary
field has two operations, addition and multiplication

Multiplication

Linear Codes:
Let
codewords in C.

and

be two

## A code C is called linear if the sum of two codewords is also a

codeword in C.
A linear code C must contain the zero codeword
Hamming Weight and Distance:
Let a, b, and c be codewords of length n.
The Hamming weight of c, denoted by w(c), is the number of
1's in c.
The Hamming distance between a and b, denoted by d(a, b), is

## Thus, the Hamming weight of a codeword c is the Hamming

distance between c and 0, that is
Similarly, the Hamming distance can be written in terms of
Hamming weight as
Minimum Distance:
The minimum distance dmin of a linear code C is defined as the
smallest Hamming distance between any pair of codewords in C.
Theorem:
The minimum distance dmin of a linear code C is the smallest

## Error Detection and Correction Capabilities:

The minimum distance dmin of a linear code C determines the error
detection and correction capabilities of C.
A linear code C of minimum distance dmin can detect up to t
errors iff
A linear code C of minimum distance dmin can correct up to t
errors iff

## Generator Matrix: In an (n,k) linear block code C,

If the data bits appear in specified location of c, the code C is
called systematic. That is,
Here we assume that the first k bits of c are the data bits.

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In a matrix form

Hence,

and

## The k x n matrix G is called the generator matrix.

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Parity-Check Matrix:
Let H denote an m x n matrix defined by
where
matrix of C.

We have

Thus,

## . The matrix H is called the parity-check

Syndrome Decoding

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## Let r denote the received word of length n when codeword c of

length n was sent over a noisy channel.
where e is called the error pattern. Consider first the case of a
single error in the ith position. Then,
Evaluate

as

## where s is called syndrome of r.

Using s and noting that
is the ith row of HT, we can
identify the error position by comparing s to the rows of HT.
Note that the zero syndrome indicates that r is a codeword and
is presumably correct.

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Example: Consider a linear block code with the following paritycheck matrix

## a. Determine the generator matrix G.

b. Suppose that the received word is r = [1 1 0 1 1 0]. Decode
this received word, i.e., find c and d.

## The Hamming Codes

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Code length:
Number of parity symbols: n k = m
Error correcting capability: t = 1
The parity-check matrices for binary Hamming codes are quite
easy to construct. For a Hamming code of length
construct a matrix whose columns consist of all nonzero m-tuples.
For example, a parity-check matrix for a (15,11) Hamming code

## The ordering of columns is arbitrary; another arrangement

would still define a (15,11) Hamming code.