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Greek

Philosophers

Greek
Philosophers
Philosophers lovers of wisdom
Sophists workers of wisdom
Teachers
phileo = love
sophia = wisdom
If sophia = wisdom and moron = fool, then a sophomore is a
wise fool.

Thales of Miletus
636-546 B.C.

Earliest known philosopher


Studied Egyptian and
Babylonian astronomy and
mathematics
Believed that the universe
was controlled by fixed laws
Basic element water.
Got rich with olive presses!

Pythagoras
582-500 B.C.

The universe could only be


understood thru numbers.
Sun, moon, and earth
revolved around a central fire.
Each planet produces a tone!
Famous for the Pythagorean
Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2

Pythagoras
582-500 B.C.
c2
a2

b2

Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2

Protagoras
485 - 410 B.C.

Most famous of the Sophists


Believed that reason and
knowledge should be used to
achieve a comfortable, safe,
and happy life.
Teachings to equip citizens for
life in the polis:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Public speaking oratory and


rhetoric
Politics
Grammar language
The art of being respectable

Plato named one of his


dialogues after him.

Hippocrates
460-377 B.C.

Founded a school of
medicine
Rejected that sickness
comes from the gods
Careful observations of
symptoms

Holistic healing

Acute
Chronic

Hygiene
Diet
Curative powers of nature

The Hippocratic Oath

Democritus
460? - 360 B.C.

Developed the atomic


theory.
Taught that the universe
was formed out of chaos
through the joining of
atoms of like shape and
size.
Atoma = indivisible
particles.
the laughing philosopher

Euclid
c.300 B.C.

One of the most


prominent
mathematicians
Wrote The Elements

Widely used till about 1903.


2nd only to the Bible in
numbers of translations,
publications, and study
Greek Arabic Latin

Said to Ptolemy: There


is No Royal Road to
geometry!

Archimedes
287 - 212 B.C.

Greek mathematician
Geometry
War machines and other
devices
Theory of buoyancy Eureka!
Law of the lever
Archimedean screw

Archimedean
Screw

Modern application of the


Archimedean Screw

The Three Most Famous


Philosophers

Socrates

Plato

Aristotle

Socrates
469 - 399 B.C.

Critic of the Sophists


Encouraged students to think
Left no writings skeptical
Dialectic method

Conversational
Based upon reason and logic

Popular among the youth


a gadfly in Athens
Placed on trial for impiety and
corrupting the youth
Was executed in 399 drank
poison hemlock

Socrates
469 - 399 B.C.

The
unexamined
life is not
worth living.
Socrates -

Socrates
469 - 399 B.C.
Socratic Method:
I.
II.
III.
IV.

V.

Admit ignorance.
Never rely on tradition.
Continuously question.
Formulate your own
opinions.
Test your opinions with
others.

Socrates
469 - 399 B.C.

Socrates dialectic method


was a departure from earlier
philosophers.
Earlier philosophers were
interested in the nature of
the universe and basic
elements.
Socrates approach was
more rigorous and was the
forerunner of logic.
Most famous student: Plato

Socrates
469 - 399 B.C.

The unexamined life is not worth

Plato
427 - 347

Preserved and perpetuated


the work of Socrates
Most important source of
info on Socrates
Founded the Academy
Wrote dialogues

B.C

Universal Forms was a recurring


theme
The Republic most important
dialogue

Those things which are


beautiful are also

Aristotle
384 - 322 B.C.

Most famous student of


Plato
Most famous teacher of
Alexander the Great
Developed Logic as a
field of study
Devised a complex
system of classification

Used in biology

Views on Government

Aristotle
384 - 322 B.C.

Views on
Government

3 Good Governments:

Monarchy
Aristocracy
Democracy

3 Bad Governments:

Tyranny
Oligarchy
Mob Rule

Aristotle
384 - 322 B.C.

All things in
moderation

Man is by nature a
political animal.

Alexander the Great


356 -323 B.C.

Alexander the Great


356 -323 B.C.