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We live in a world of waves- from the simple water

waves generated when we throw a coin in a wishing

the music as we strum a guitar,

the thunder associated with a storm to


To see the unborn

Wave- a disturbance traveling

through a medium or in
Wave Pulse - A
unrepeated disturbance


Wave Train- A succession of

periodic disturbances

A. Mechanical waves
-require a material medium to
B. Electromagnetic waves
-can travel in vacuum and in
material media.

2. Direction of Propagation

A. Transverse waves
B. Longitudinal Waves

Transverse wave
- particles of the medium are vibrating

perpendicularly to the direction of wave

- made up of alternating hills and valleys. The
top of the hill is called crest while the bottom
of the valley is called trough.
- Crest is the position of maximum upward
displacement from equilibrium position.
-Trough is the position of maximum downward
displacement from equilibrium position.

Transverse Wave

B. Longitudinal Waves
particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the
direction of wave propagation.
composed of compressions and rarefactions
Compressions are where particles of medium
are closer together.
Rarefactions where they are farther apart.
Compression corresponds to crest in
transverse waves and rarefaction to trough.
Sound waves are longitudinal waves.


Some waves have both longitudinal and

transverse properties.
Seismic waves or waves generated by an
earthquake or explosion are classified into
two: body waves and surface waves.
Body waves travel through the earths
interior and are divided into primary wave or
P wave and secondary or S wave. P waves
are longitudinal while S waves are

Surface waves, as the name suggests

travel at the surface.
Surface waves are further classified
into Love waves and Rayleigh waves.
Love waves were named after A.E. H.
Love and were the fastest surface
wave. Rayleigh wave, named after Lord

Rayleigh Waves
Particles of medium move in
elliptical paths
Particles at the surface move in
counterclockwise ellipse
Particles at a depth of 1/5 wavelength
move in clockwise ellipses.
are responsible for the shaking felt
during an earthquake.

( Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University)

Rayleigh Wave

Water Waves
Each particle in the surface of water
moves in circular orbits.

Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves are produced by
oscillating electric charges with the
electric field and magnetic field vibrating
perpendicularly with each other and to
the direction of wave propagation.

The electric field and magnetic field of an electromagnetic wave are

perpendicular to each other and to the direction of motion of wave. E
stands for electric field, B stands for magnetic field and c for the velocity of
electromagnetic wave.

They all propagate through vacuum (or

air) with the same speed equal to 3
In 1862, James Clerk Maxwell predicted
the existence of electromagnetic
waves. However, it was until 1887
through the efforts of Heinrich Hertz
when those waves (except light) were
observed to exist.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic spectrum is a term
used to describe the entire range of
electromagnetic radiations arranged in
the order of their frequencies or

Radio Waves
Radio waves are the longest of all
electromagnetic waves, ranging from 10 1m to 104m.
They were discovered by Heinrich Hertz in
They are produced by electronic devices
like LC oscillators. The sun and the planet
Jupiter are extraterrestrial sources of radio

They are divided into

a) long waves
b) medium waves used by AM stations
c) VHF (very high frequency) used by FM
d) ULF (ultra high frequency) used by
police radio communications military
aircraft and television transmissions.

RF IDs- soon to replace
the barcode in most
grocery items.
The EC tag that we use to
pay tolls in South Luzon
Expressway and North
Luzon Expressway is
another form of RFID.

MRI Scan

Fractal Antenna

Wireless Communication
a cable replacement technology founded in
1998by Ericcson, Nokia, Intel, Toshiba and IBM.
small radio chip inserted into computers,
printers, cell phone that carries information and
transmits it to a receiver at frequency 2.45Ghz

The Bluetooth Logo unites the Runic

alphabetic characters "H", which looks
similar to an asterisk, and a "B", which are
the initials for Harald Bltand.

WiFi is a wireless technology that

provides easy and fast Internet access
WiMax is an acronym for Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave Access

Microwaves are extremely high
frequency radio waves.
James Clerk Maxwell was credited for
discovering microwaves in 1864.
They have short wave lengths: from 10 -4m
to 10-1m and very easily absorbed by
water molecules. That is why they are
used in microwave ovens.

Microwave Antenna Farm in

NCU, Taiwan

Microwave Antenna at Remote

sensing Lab, NCU

Infrared Waves
Infrared rays have longer wavelengths
than red. Their wavelengths range from 7
x 10-7m - 10-3m. Sir William Herschel
identified these rays about 1800.
Infrared rays are also known as heat
waves. The danger of too much exposure
to infrared rays will lead to overheating
(but of course!).

Infrared rays are used in remote

controls for televisions, burglar alarm
systems and night visions.
Physiotherapists use heat lamp to heal
sports injury.


Visible Light
Light is the part of the electromagnetic
spectrum visible to our unaided eye.
It extends from the short wave violet ( =
4 x 10-7m) to the long wave red ( =7.6 x

Ultraviolet Rays
Johann Wilhelm Ritter discovered the
ultraviolet rays (UV for short).
UV rays have wavelengths ranging from
6x 10-10m to 4 x 10-7m.
A major source of ultra violet rays is the

Special lamps also emit UV rays. UV rays

are used to detect forged bank notes. UV
rays also make visible the security marker
ink that we use for our signatures in our
It is also a good source of vitamin D. It is
a common practice to expose babies to
sunlight in the morning for their bones to
get stronger.

UV rays are also used to sterilize medical

too much exposure to ultraviolet rays
burns our skin and produces the so
-called sun tan.
UV rays can also cause skin cancer.
Ultraviolet rays can also damage the


X-rays or Roentgen rays are thousand
times shorter than the shortest visible light
and have very high frequencies.

X- rays have wavelengths ranging from

10-12m to 10-8m.

To photograph our internal body parts,

airport security checks to see the
inside of your luggage.
X rays can cause cancer and damage


As a young boy, he was drawn to nature
and loved to experiment. His schooldays
were quite troublesome. He was even
expelled from Utrecht Technical School
for making a caricature of one of his
teachers, a crime he did not admit. He
was often quoted saying A man must
have luck in life to get anywhere. Truly
enough, this man must be very lucky for
having accidentally discovered X-rays
while working on cathode ray tubes. For
this discovery, he was awarded the very
first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901

Do you know that

One of the first X-ray

photograph that Roentgen
produced was that of his
wedding ring in her finger.

Gamma Rays
Gamma rays are given off by radioactive
materials like Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137.
Gamma rays are highly penetrating
because of their very short wavelengths
ranging from less than 10-14m to 10-10m.

Gamma rays are used in industries to

detect cracks in metals.
They can cause cancer and even
mutation. But the irony of it, gamma
rays are used to destroy cancer cells
Paul Villard was given the credit for
discovering gamma rays in 1900.

Wave Terminology
1. The period (T) of a vibratory motion
is the time required to make a complete
to and fro motion. One to and fro
motion is called a cycle. Period is
usually expressed in seconds.

Frequency (f) is the number of cycles

per unit time. Its SI unit is the hertz,
abbreviated as Hz. 1 Hz = 1 cycle/second.
Frequency is the reciprocal of period.
Amplitude (A) of vibration - the
maximum displacement of the body
from its equilibrium position.

Wavelength is the distance between

any two successive points in a wave
that are in phase with each other.
Two points are in phase with each
other if they have the same mode of
vibration. Otherwise, they are out of

Basic Wave Equation

V= f
where v is the velocity of the wave in
meters/second, f is the frequency in
Hertz and is the wavelength in

On your radio, you have an AM band
and an FM band. AM means amplitude
modulation and FM means frequency
modulation. Suppose a station
broadcasts on two radio frequencies:
630kHz and 101.9MHz on your radio
dial. Find the wavelength for each

Example 2

A transverse wave on a rope is shown

below. What is the a) wavelength b)
amplitude c) If the frequency of the wave
is 5Hz, what is its velocity?

Water waves are classified as deepwater
waves or shallow water waves. If the
depth of the water is much greater than
, the waves are deepwater waves.
Deepwater waves are short waves. Each
particle in the surface of water moves in
circular orbits.

. Shallow water waves are long waves

propagating with a velocity given by the
following equation


where h is the depth of water and g is the

acceleration due to gravity.

While fishing, you notice that 8 crests pass

a given point in a time interval of 10s. You
approximate the distance between 2
crests to be 1.2m. Calculate the a) speed
of water waves and b) depth of water.

Wave Properties
the turning back of a wave to the original
direction it is traveling upon hitting an object.

the change in direction and change in
wavelength or velocity of the wave that
occurs as the wave is transmitted from
one medium to another.

Waves bend around obstacles in their
path or spread out when they travel
through narrow slits.
Charactertized by bright and dark fringes
Activity: look through your finger

Diffraction through narrow and

wide opening

Diffraction bright and dark


Figure 20.14: Diffraction pattern for a single slit.

Doppler Effect
Apparent change in frequency due to
relative motion between source and

Wala ng


Light emitted by a
star is redshifted!
The star must be
moving away from

Energy Transmission of Wave

All objects have a tendency to vibrate at a
characteristic frequency called its natural
Resonance is said to occur when an object
vibrates at its natural frequency upon
receiving impulses from a source vibrating
at the natural frequency of the object.
The result of resonance is a wave of
greatly increased amplitude on the part of
the object.

Collapse of Tacoma Narrows