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TUTORIAL 1

INTRODUCTION
TO GRAMMAR

DEFINITON OF
GRAMMAR
Grammar
may be defined as

the
rules of a language, governing the
way in which words are put
together to convey meaning in
different
contexts.
(Nesamalar
Chitravelu;
Sararatha
Sithamparam & The Soo Choon,
2005)

Grammar is generally a thought to be


set of rules specifying the correct
ordering of words at the sentence
level (Nunan, 2003)
Grammar is a description of the
rules
that
govern
how
a
languages sentences are formed
(Thornbury, 2008)

FLUENCY VS
ACCURACY

Accuracy
Accuracy is the ability to produce correct
sentences using correct grammar and vocabulary.
Fluency
Fluency is the ability to read, speak, or write
easily, smoothly, and expressively.
In other words, the speaker can read, understand
and respond in a language clearly and concisely
while relating meaning and context.
Source;
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/blogs/english12345/fluencyor-accuracy-speaking

Comparisons of Accuracy-oriented
activities & Fluency-oriented activities
Accuracy acitivities

Fluency activities

Purposes

to help students
achieve accurate
perception and
production of a target
item which can be a
sound, a word, or a
sentence structure.

to help students
practice language in
listening, speaking,
reading, and/or
writing activities to so
develop fluency in
using the language in
spontaneous
communication.

Material

the texts are usually


composed of separate
items: the target
items are usually
practiced out of
context or situation;

the texts are usually


whole pieces of
discourses:
conversation, stories,
etc.; texts are usually
authentic and used as
they would be in real

Activities

students' attention
is focused on a
particular target
item; their output is
usually predictable;
their performance
is assessed on how
few language
mistakes are made;
students' errors are
corrected; tasks do
not usually
simulate real-life
situations.

students' attention
is focused on
communicating
information and
expressing ideas;
their output may
not always be
predictable; their
performance is
assessed on how
well ideas are
expressed or
understood;
students' errors are
not corrected
unless it interferes
with
Source;
communication;
http://www.auburn.edu/~nunnath/engl6240/accuracy.htm
tasks often

SAMPLE OF ACTIVITIES
Accuracy : grammar presentations,
gap-fill exercises, frame dialogues.
Fluency : role plays, speeches,
communicative activities, games.

GRAMMAR FOR
YOUNG LEARNERS
Different kinds of grammatical knowledge
at different learning stages.
Only understand rules to use them.
Do not need to have conscious grammar
knowledge.

Grammar
knowledge
required for young
learners

1) Knowledge of Word Order


Basic sentence patterns.
Position of word classes. (adjectives,
adverbs, prepositions & words like only,
please and just.
Declarative Abu is playing
Interrogative Is Abu playing?
Imperative Abu, play.
Exclamatory Abu is playing!
Positive & Negative versions Abu is not
playing. Isnt Abu playing? Abu, dont play!

2) Knowledge of
Grammatical Facts & Rules
Accepted and learnt as a whole
collocation.
Articles ( a, an, the )
Inflection of verbs ( eat, eats, has
eaten, ate )
Pluralization of nouns ( box-boxes,
boy-boys )
Word derivation ( adjective- happy;
adverb-happily; noun-happiness )

3) Knowledge of Form &


Function
Functions of language to
communicate to persuade, to
express agreement, thanks,
appreciation & to ask for and give
information.
Forms Words, phrases and
sentences that are used to express
those functions of language.

Knowledge of Form &


Function
Language function

Language form

To introduce

1) Jenny, meet my friend, Lim.


2) Jenny, this is Lim.
3) I would like you to meet my
sister, Amy.

To ask for
directions

1) How do I get to the police


station?
2) Can you show me the way
to the police station?
3) Do you mind telling me how
to get to the police station?

Knowledge of Form &


Function
Form
It is warm in here.

Function
1)Expressing pleasure at
being out of cold.
2)Indicating that
someone should do
something. Example :
switch on the fan or
open the windows.
3)Just making a remark
about the place as a
means of starting up a
conversation.

4) Knowledge of How to Link Ideas


in Different Sentences (Sentence
combining)
Linking ideas to make coherent and
cohesive text.
Compound sentence He is handsome but
his brother is not.
Complex sentence The match went on
although it was raining.
Conjunctions and, or, but
Logical connectors so, unless, therefore
Pronouns I, they, him, my, its

5) Knowledge of the Grammar of


Spoken & Written Sentences
Abbreviations in spoken language,
but not allowed in formal writing
(Im,thatll,shes)
Forms within the same medium that
are appropriate to some contexts and
not in others. - Hi! ( when greeting a
friend )
- How do you do? ( when
greeting a
stranger)

6) Knowledge of the meaning of


different grammatical options
Sentences formed to express the same
content contain different forms which have
different meanings.
Example of same basic idea : someone
(Mary) bought someone else (Peter) a
something (a pen) 1) Mary bought a pen for Peter.
2) It was Mary who bought Peter a pen.
3) A pen is what Mary bought for Peter.
4) It was Peter for whom Mary bought the
pen.

The Place of
Grammar in the
Primary ESL
Classroom

KBSR

SUKATAN PELAJARAN KURIKULUM


BERSEPADU
SEKOLAH RENDAH BAHASA INGGERIS,
2001
Grammar also forms
part of the language
contents of the syllabus. These grammar items
need to be taught in context and in a meaningful
way so that they can be used both in speech and
in writing. The grammar items can be reinforced
and consolidated if learners are encounter the
items often enough through the various tasks
set. The grammar items should not be taught in
isolation but rather in the context of a topic.
SOURCE : (http://www.moe.gov.my/bpk/sp_hsp/bi/kb
sr/sp_bi_kbsr.pdf
)

KSSR

DOKUMEN STANDARD
KURIKULUM SEKOLAH RENDAH BAHASA
INGGERIS TAHUN 1 & 2
Grammar Modular - The inclusion of the module on Grammar emphasizes the
importance of having pupils develop a sound grasp of
the language structures and grammar of Standard British
English.
KSSR Syllabus - Grammar is no longer part of the modules in KSSR syllabus
for Year 1 and 2. The reason for this is because English is
regarded as the second language of most pupils in schools.
Therefore, the teaching of grammar can be delayed to the
later stage, which is from Year 3 to Year 6.

SOURCE

http://www.moe.gov.my/bpk/kssr_docs/03%20Bahasa%20Inggeris/01%20DSK%20
English%20Y1-%20SK.pdf

Why grammar is introduced from


Year 3 onwards ?
English is the second language for pupils in
schools. It is believed prudent and pedagogically
sound to defer the learning of grammar to a later
stage. Pupils should be given the opportunity to
develop an awareness of grammar in their first
language and this awareness may then be
exploited when English grammar is introduced in
Year 3. This approach will reduce the load and
stress of learning in the early years where the
emphasis is on learning through fun and play.
Source : (http://pbey4101.wordpress.com/2012/04/10/discussion-4-8/)

The Place of
Grammar
in the
Primary ESL
Classroom
COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH

Use language to communicate


efficiently.
Develop both fluency and accuracy.
Include activities that combines both
the accuracy first model and
communication first model.
Accuracy first model mastery of
grammatical patterns, forms and
functions.
Communication first model fluency
in communication.