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ME2354 AUTOMOBILE

ENGINEERING

N. SENTHIL KUMAR M.E, (Ph.D).,


ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ADHIPARASAKTHI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, MELMARUVATHUR.

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UNIT I VEHICHLE STRUCTURE AND


ENGINES
Types of automobiles , vehicle construction and different layouts,
chassis, frame and body, resistances to vehicle motion and need for a
gearbox, components of engine-their forms ,functions and materials

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BOOKS REFERRED
1.

Kirpal Singh, Automobile Engineering Vol 1 & 2 , Standard


Publishers, 12th Edition 2009, New Delhi.

2.

Jain,K.K.,and Asthana .R.B, Automobile Engineering Tata


McGraw Hill Publishers, New Delhi, 2002

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INTRODUCTION
1.

Automobile is a wheeled vehicle carrying its own motive power


unit.

2.

An automobile is a self-propelled vehicle driven by an internal


combustion engine and is used for transportation of goods and
passengers.

3.

Automobiles are made up of a frame supporting the body and certain


power developing and transmitting units, which are further supported
by tyres and wheels through springs and axles.
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TYPES OF AUTOMOBILES
1.

2.

Based on Usage
1.

Mopeds.

2.

Motor cycles, scooters.

3.

Cars, jeeps.

4.

Buses and trucks.

Based on Capacity
1.

Heavy transport vehicles (HTV) Trucks, buses.

2.

Light transport vehicles (LTV) Cars, jeeps.


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TYPES OF AUTOMOBILES
3.

4.

Based on Make and Model


1.

Bajaj, Royal Enfield, Honda etc.

2.

Premier Padmini, Standard, Hindustan Ambassador, Maruti etc.

3.

Tata indica, Leyland, For Ikon, General motors Corsa etc.

Based on Fuel used


1.

Petrol Vehicles.

2.

Diesel Vehicles.

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TYPES OF AUTOMOBILES
5.

6.

Base on Body Style


1.

Close cars such as saloon, coupe etc.

2.

Open cars like sports car, convertible car etc.

3.

Special styles such as estate car, station wagon etc.

Based on Wheels
1.

Two wheelers scooters, motor cycles.

2.

Three wheelers autorickshaws, tempos.

3.

Four wheelers cars, jeeps.

4.

Six wheelers trucks, buses.


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TYPES OF AUTOMOBILES
7.

Based on Drive
1.

2.

Whether the vehicle can be driven sitting towards right or left side
1.

Left hand drive American vehicles for use in U.S.A

2.

Right hand drive Indian vehicles.

Whether the front axle, rear axle or both axles are driving axles.
1.

Front wheel drive Maruti car, Volkswagen car.

2.

Rear wheel drive Ambassador cars, Premier Padmini.

3.

All wheel drive Jeeps.

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TYPES OF AUTOMOBILES
8.

Based on Transmission
1.

Manual, in which ordinary crash type gear box is used (Indian cars).

2.

Semi-Automatic having a two pedal transmission using manual operation of


the standard gear box, with automatic clutch control (Obsolete now).

3.

Fully-Automatic, which employs transmission that uses combinations of


epicyclic gear trains and torque converters (Mercedes 7G-Tronic).

4.

Continuously variable with a transmission which can select any desired drive
ratio within its range (Audi, Honda).

5.

Automated Manual, the cars with transmission that are basically manual, but
operated hydraulically and electronically (Audi with DSG).

OFF-ROAD VEHICLES
1.

An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is


capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.

2.

It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep, open


treads, a flexible suspension, or even caterpillar tracks.

3.

Other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are


generally termed off-highway vehicles, including tractors, forklifts,
cranes, backhoes, bulldozers, and Golf carts

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OFF-ROAD VEHICLES

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CHASSIS
The chassis of an automobile consists of following components

1.

suitably mounted.
1.

Engine and the radiator.

2.

Transmission system, consisting of the clutch, gear box, propeller shaft


and the rear axle.

3.

Suspension system.

4.

Road wheels.

5.

Steering system.

6.

Brakes and fuel tank.

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CHASSIS
All the components are mounted either of two ways.

2.
1.

Conventional Construction A separate frame is used. It is


presently used only for heavy vehicles.

2.

Frameless or Unitary Construction No separate frame is


used. For cars frameless type is used except of course for small
manufacturers, who find it economical.

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CHASSIS CLASSIFICATION
1.

Conventional control chassis Engine is mounted in front of the


drivers cabin, this arrangement avoids full utilization of the space.

2.

Semi-forward control chassis Engine is so mounted that half of it


is in the drivers cabin whereas the other half is in front, outside the
drivers cabin. Tata SE series is an example of it.

3.

Full-forward control chassis Engine is mounted completely inside


the drivers cabin, going for maximum utilization of space. Tata E
series of vehicle is an example of it.
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CONVENTIONAL
CONSTRUCTION OF CHASSIS
In this type of chassis construction the frame is the basic unit to
which various components are attached and body is bolted onto the
frame later on.
FUNCTION OF THE FRAME
1.

To support the chassis components and the body.

2.

To withstand static and dynamic loads without undue deflection or


distortion.
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CONVENTIONAL
CONSTRUCTION OF CHASSIS
LOADS ON THE FRAME
1.

Weight of the vehicle and the passengers, which causes vertical


bending of the side members.

2.

Vertical loads when the vehicle comes across a bump or hollow,


which results in longitudinal torsion due to one wheel lifted (or
lowered) with other wheels at the usual road level.

3.

Loads due to road camber, side wind, cornering force while taking a
turn, which result in lateral bending of side members.
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CONVENTIONAL
CONSTRUCTION OF CHASSIS
LOADS ON THE FRAME
4.

Load due to wheel impact with road obstacles may cause that
particular wheel to remain obstructed while the other wheel tends to
move forward, distorting the frame to parallelogram shape.

5.

Engine torque and braking torque tending to bend the side members
in the vertical plane.

6.

Sudden impact loads during a collision, which may result in a


general collapse.
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FRAME CONSTRUCTION
1.

The frame structure shows the longitudinal members A and the cross
members B.

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FRAME CONSTRUCTION
1.

The frame is upswept at the rear and front to accommodate the


movement of the axles due to springing, which keeps the chassis
height low.

2.

The frame is narrowed down at the front either as in figure to have a


better steering lock, which gives a smaller turning circle.

3.

C are the brackets supporting the body.

4.

E1 are the dumb irons to act as bearing for spring shackles.

5.

Brackets E are meant for mounting the springs.


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FRAME CONSTRUCTION
1.

The extension of the chassis frame ahead of the front axle is called
front overhang, whereas its extension beyond the rear axle is called
rear overhang.

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FRAME CONSTRUCTION
1.

Framed construction is invariably used for commercial vehicles to


carry large loads due to larger ground clearance and sufficient space.

2.

The engine clutch and the transmission are all bolted together to form
one rigid assembly which is mounted usually on the front end of the
frame, supported on the frame at three places by rubber blocks.

3.

The rubber blocks are used to isolate the engine from road shocks
and the body from the engine vibrations.

4.

This method also accommodates any misalignment between the


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engine or the transmissionNSK
relative
body

FRAME SECTIONS

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FRAME MATERIALS
Sl. No Material

Alloying %

Carbon

0.25 0.35 %

Manganese

0.35 0.75 %

Silicon

0.30 % max

Nickel

3%

Phosphorous 0.05 % max

Sulphur

0.5 % max

An Aluminium alloy called Alpax has also been used as frame material
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SUB FRAME
1.

Normally the various components are bolted directly to the main


frame.

2.

But many a time, these components are mounted on a separate frame


called sub-frame.

3.

This sub-frame is further supported by the main frame at three


points, isolating the effects of twisting and flexing of the main
frames.

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SUB FRAME - Advantages


1.

The mass of the sub-frame alone helps to damp vibrations.

2.

The provisions of sub-frame simplifies production on the assembly


line and facilitates subsequent overhaul or repair.

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DEFECTS IN FRAMES
1.

The only prominent defect that usually occurs in the frames due to
accidents is the alignment fault, which is checked by means of
plumb line.

2.

The vehicle is placed on a level surface and by suspending plumb


line from four different points on each side of the frame, their
position on the ground is marked.

3.

The vehicle is then taken away and the diagonals are measured
between corresponding points.
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DEFECTS IN FRAMES
4.

These should not differ more than 7 or 8 mm. If any of the


corresponding diagonals do differ by more than this amount, the
frame is out of alignment.

5.

The possible causes, them, may be due to,


1.

The dumb irons or side members may be bent.

2.

Cross members may be buckled.

3.

Some rivets may be loose or broken.


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DEFECTS IN FRAMES
6.

If the damage to the frame members is small, they can be repaired by


means of a hydraulic jack and wringing iron.

7.

If the damage is more, the bent frame member may be heated to


straighten it.

8.

Another alternative may be to cut the damaged part and weld a new
one instead.

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FRAMELESS CONSTRUCTION
1.

In this type of construction,


heavy side members used in
conventional

construction

are

eliminated.
2.

The floor is strengthened by


cross-members and the body, all
welded together.

3.

In some cases the sub-frames are


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VEHICLE DIMENSIONS
Two important dimensions used to describe the size of an automobile of
the framed or the frameless type are,
1.

Wheel track This is the transverse distance between the tyre-toground centres on the near-side and the off-side.

2.

Wheel base This is the longitudinal distance between the centre


lines of the front and the rear axles.

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REQUIREMENTS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
1.

The body of an automobile, especially a car which is of frameless


type, must satisfy the following requirements.

2.

In case of the heavier vehicles of the conventional frame type


construction, the body and the frame should jointly meet these
requirements.

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REQUIREMENTS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
1.

Strength The body must be strong enough to withstand all types of


forces to which the car is subjected, which include the weight of the
car, passengers and the luggage, inertia, braking and side force. It
should be able to cope with impact loads of reasonable magnitude.

2.

Stiffness The car body may be considered a beam supported on


wheels at each end. It must posses sufficient stiffness to prevent
excessive sagging in the middle. Stiffness is important for stability,
handling and quietness.
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REQUIREMENTS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
3.

Torsional Stiffness The body should be sufficiently rigid so as to


resist twisting on bad roads.

4.

Space There must be adequate space in the body for the passengers
and luggage both.

5.

Air drag The resistance of air during running depends upon the
body shape and increases directly as the square of the vehicle speed.
The shape of the body should be such that the air drag is minimum.

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REQUIREMENTS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
6.

Protection against weather The design of the body must be such


that the occupants and the luggage are protected from the bad
weather.

7.

Lightness The body should be as light as possible in relation to the


amount of space inside.

8.

Resistance to corrosion The body should be so designed that no


moisture is accumulated which would produce rust. The materials
used should be such that no corrosion takes place.
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REQUIREMENTS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
9.

Protection in accident This is a very important consideration in


the car body design. The body must be such that the driver is at
maximum ease so that there are least chances of the accident taking
place due to fatigue. However, in case the accident does take place,
the body must protect the occupants.

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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
1.

Since 1940s, most car bodies have been a unitary structure consisting
of pressed steel panels spot-welded together, to which the engine,
transmission, chassis components, seats and all other parts are
attached.

2.

The modern car body, though still unitary in character, consists of a


steel skeleton frame to which the body-sides, the bulkheads, the floor
and the roof are attached.

3.

The frame members are often closed hollow beams formed by


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welding together two or more
pressings.

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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
4.

A modern car body can be seen as an upper body carried on a


platform.

5.

The platform consists of following sections,


1.

Nose sub-assembly It includes the engine, front suspension mountings, front


bulk-head, the inner wheel arches and the structural members for absorption of
fontal impact energy.

2.

Rear sub-assembly It includes the rear suspension mountings, rear wheel


arches and the structural members for absorption of rear impact energy.

3.

Centre floor It is required to be stiff as possible to help keep the cabin space
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intact while during impact the sub-assemblies collapse progressively.

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
6.

Besides power train and suspension, the following components are


also attached to the platform.

7.

1.

The exhaust system.

2.

The fuel tank.

3.

The brake and the fuel line.

To keep the design, development and production cost low, the same
platform is usually used for different versions of the car model or
even for several different car model.
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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
8.

This can be done by changing the length of the centre floor section
and thereby the wheel base.

9.

The nose sub-assembly is normally not changed, being most


complex.

10.

The main components of a car body have been shown below, where
the body sill and various pillars are the main load-taking members.

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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY

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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF
AUTOMOBILE BODY
11.

The windscreen made out of safety glass should be large enough to


provide a good vision to the driver.

12.

The door panels and the side panels should be strong enough to
sustain some side impact.

13.

The shape of the body must be such that the air drag is minimum
since at higher speeds, the streamlining of the bodywork becomes an
important factor towards fuel consumption.

14.

The front and rear bumpers are expected to take resonable impact
loads.

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RESISTANCE TO VEHICLE
MOTION
1.

To keep a vehicle moving, the engine has to develop sufficient power


to overcome the opposing road resistance power, and to pull away
from a standstill or to accelerate a reserve of power in addition to
that absorbed by the road resistance must be available when required.

2.

Road resistance is expressed as tractive resistance (kN).

3.

The propelling thrust at the tyre to road interface needed to overcome


this resistance is known as Tractive effect (kN).

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RESISTANCE TO VEHICLE
MOTION

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ROLLING RESISTANCE
1.

Power has to be expended to overcome the restraining forces caused


by the deformation of tyres and road surfaces and the interaction of
frictional scrub when tractive effect is applied.

2.

Secondary causes of rolling resistance are wheel bearing, oil seal


friction and the churning of the oil in the transmission system.

3.

It has been found that the flattening distortion of the tyre casing at
the road surface interface consumes more energy as the wheel speed
increases and therefore the rolling resistance will also rise slightly.
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ROLLING RESISTANCE

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ROLLING RESISTANCE
4.

Factors which influence the magnitude of the rolling resistance are


the laden weight of the vehicle, type of road surface, and the design,
construction and materials used in the manufacture of the tyre.

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AIR RESISTANCE
1.

Power is needed to counteract the tractive resistance created by the


vehicle moving through the air.

2.

This is caused by air being pushed aside and the formation of


turbulence over the contour of the vehicles body.

3.

It has been found that the air resistance opposing force and air
resistance power increase with the square and cube of the vehicles
speed respectively.

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AIR RESISTANCE
4.

Thus at very low vehicle speeds air resistance is insignificant, but it


becomes predominant in the upper speed range. Influencing factors
which determine the amount of air resistance are frontal area of
vehicle, vehicle speed, shape and streamlining of body and the wind
speed and direction.

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GRADIENT RESISTANCE
1.

Power is required to propel a vehicle and its load not only along a
level road but also up any gradient likely to be encountered.

2.

Therefore, a reserve of power must be available when climbing to


overcome the potential energy produced by the weight of the vehicle
as it is progressively lifted.

3.

The gradient resistance opposing motion, and therefore the tractive


effect of power needed to drive the vehicle forward, is directly
proportional to the laden weight of the vehicle and the magnitude of
the gradient.

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GRADIENT RESISTANCE
4.

Thus driving up a slope of 1 in 5 would require twice the reserve of


power to that need to propel the same vehicle up a gradient of 1 in 10
at the same speed.

g
Rg
g
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W
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NEED FOR A GEARBOX


1.

The need of gear box in automobile is to increase / decrease the


speed while driving the vehicle.

2.

Power from a petrol or diesel reciprocating engine transfers its power


in the form of torque and angular speed to the propelling wheels of
the vehicle to produce motion.

3.

The object of the gearbox is to enable the engines turning effect and
its rotational speed output to be adjusted by choosing a range of
under and overdrive gear ratios so that the vehicle responds to the
51 conditions.
drivers requirements within the limit of the various road

NEED FOR A GEARBOX


1.

Power to weight ratio When choosing the lowest and highest


gearbox gear ratios, the most important factor to consider is not just
the available engine power but also the weight of the vehicle and any
load it is expected to propel. Consequently, the power developed per
unit weight of laden vehicle has to be known. This is usually
expressed as the power to weight ratio,

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NEED FOR A GEARBOX


1.

Ratio span Another major consideration when selecting gear ratios


is deciding upon the steepest gradient, the vehicle is expected to
climb (this may normally be taken as 20%, that is 1 in 5) and the
maximum level road speed the vehicle is expected to reach in top
gear with a small surplus of about 0.2% gradeability.

2.

The two extreme operating conditions just described set the highest
and lowest gear ratios.

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NEED FOR A GEARBOX


3.

To fix these conditions, the ratio of road speed in highest gear to road
speed in lowest gear at a given engine speed should be known (both
road speeds being achieved at similar engine speed)..

4.

This quantity is referred to as the ratio span.

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NEED FOR A GEARBOX


5.

Car and light van gearboxes have ratio spans of about 3.5:1 if top
gear is direct, but with overdrive this may be increased to about
4.5:1.

6.

Large commercial vehicles which have a low power to weight ratio,


and therefore have very little surplus power when fully laden, require
ratio spans of between 7.5 and 10:1, or even larger for special
applications.

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NEED FOR A GEARBOX


1.

Engine torque rise and speed operating range Commercial


vehicle engines used to pull large loads are normally designed to
have a positive torque rise curve, that is from maximum speed to
peak torque with reducing engine speed the available torque
increases. The amount of engine torque rise is normally expressed as
a percentage of the peak torque from maximum speed (rated power)
back to peak torque.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
1.

Cooling System This prevents the engine from overheating. It may


be of air cooling or water cooling types, the former being more
commonly used in smaller engines of two-wheelers, while the later
types of cooling systems are predominantly used in engines of the
rest of the automobiles.

2.

Fuel System This includes storage tank for the fuel, piping work
for supply to the engine and arrangement for mixing with air and
spraying into the engine cylinder.
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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
3.

Exhaust System It function is to vent exhaust gases with least


back pressure and also to reduce engine noise with the muffler. These
days converters are also fitted in the exhaust pipe to reduce the
harmful constituents in the exhaust system.

4.

Lubrication System This reduces friction to decrease wear of


moving parts. Relatively less viscous lubricating oils are used in
engines, whereas heavier oils and greases are used in the
transmission and wheel bearings.
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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
5.

Ignition System Its function is to supply high voltage surge at the


desired instant and of adequate strength to produce a spark in the
engine. Earlier electro-mechanical systems were used, which have
given way to electronic systems in modern engine.

6.

Electrical System It consists of a storage battery, charging system


and starting system. The battery supplies electricity for starting the
engine, providing energy for spark and for all the electrical devices
in the vehicle, e.g., lighting, heating, visiting, music system, etc.
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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
6.

Electrical System The charging system consists mainly of an


alternator and is used for continually charge the battery to keep it
charged at all times. The starting system consists of a starting motor
and a device to disconnect the same from the engine as soon as the
engine is started.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cylinder Blocks
1.

All the major components, are installed on or in the engine block.


These components including the cylinder bores, are machined very
precisely.

2.

They must be thick enough to contain the pressure of the burning


fuel mixture.

3.

A tight fit must be ensured between the cylinder base and the piston
rings to enable piston rings to seal the combustible gas.

4.

If the cylinder becomes oval due to wear, some of the gas escapes
through the piston rings.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cylinder Blocks
1.

The gas which leaks through the piston rings is called blow-by,
which reduces the efficiency of an engine.

2.

Most cylinder blocks were made of cast iron or grey iron as the
material was easy to machine.

3.

The main disadvantage of iron being its weight, engine blocks are
now being cast from lightweight aluminium, having less weight.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cylinder Blocks

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cylinder Liner
1.

The cylinder liner is a sleeve in which the piston of an engine


reciprocates.

2.

The life of a cylinder between its re-bores depends on two main


factors,
1.

Abrasion It depends on the atmospheric condition and the efficiency of the


air filter and oil filter. Dusty atmospheric air is more harmful as it increases
abrasion in the cylinder.

2.

Corrosion It is due to the corrosive products of combustion, which are


formed after burning of fuel with air. Corrosion is accelerated at low cylinder
temperature due to acid bearing moisture on the cylinder walls.
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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cylinder Liner
1.

The use of separate barrels or sleeves, which are known as cylinder


liners, provides long life to the cylinder.

2.

These cylinder liners are made of superior material and are fitted in
the cylinder block.

3.

The liners are removable and can be replaced when worn or


damaged.

4.

The liners should have good wear resistance and the ability to retain
oil to lubricate the surface between the walls and the piston rings.
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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cylinder Liner
1.

For cylinder liners, nickel-chromium iron has been popularly used,


containing 3.5% carbon, 0.6% manganese, 1.5% phosphorous, 0.05%
sulphur, 2% silicon, 2% nickel and 0.7% chromium.

2.

To increase the wear resistance, the liners are hardened by oil


quenching.

3.

The cylinder liners are of two types.


1.

Dry liners They are not in direct contact with cooling water.

2.

Wet liners The cooling water comes in contact with the liner, hence the
lower end of the liner is sealed using sealing rings or packing67rings.

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cylinder Liner

68

DRY LINER Vs. WET LINER


Sl. No
1

Wet Liner

Dry Liner

Can be easily replaced

Needs special tools because it is tight


fitted in the cylinder block

It is properly cooled as it comes in It does not comes in direct contact with


direct contact with the cooling the cooling water. Hence the working
water

temperature is more than wet liner

It needs leak proof joints, so that No such requirement is needed


the cooling water does not leak into
the crankcase.

It

does

not

require

accurate It requires accurate finishing

finishing on the outside


5

Finishing may be completed before It needs finishing after assembly


assembly

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE Crankcase

1.

The crankcase supports the cylinders and the crankshaft and is an


important structure in the internal combustion engine.

2.

It also functions like a housing and protects the engine parts against
dust, water and splashing mud.

3.

The crankcase stores lubricating oil required for lubricating the


engine parts.

4.

The crankcase not only gives support to the engine parts and engine
mountings, but also withstands the loads caused by piston thrust, gas
pressure, primary and secondary forces and couples etc.
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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE Crankcase


1.

The cylinder block and the upper part of the crankcase form an
integral cast.

2.

Thus a crankcase is usually divided into an upper and a lower


section.

3.

The lower section is known as oil pan and acts as a reservoir for the
storage of lubricating oil, which splashes due to the rotation of crank
and also pumped to the engine bearings, thus lubricating the various
engine parts.
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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE Crankcase


1.

2.

The main forces acting on a cylinder block are due to,


1.

Gas pressure including force of explosion.

2.

Inertia forces due to reciprocating masses.

Both these forces act along the connecting rod, i.e., line of stroke,
which tends to lift the cylinder blocks from the crankcase.

3.

When the cylinder block and the crankcase are cast together in one
unit, grey cast iron is used because it has rigidity, low cost and high
wear resistance.
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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE Crankcase

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cylinder Head
1.

The volume enclosed by the piston at TDC, the cylinder block and
the cylinder head is known as the clearance volume.

2.

This is the combustion chamber.

3.

The various types of cylinder heads and the valve arrangements are,

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Gaskets

1.

The gasket is a piece of soft sheet or spongy sheet having similar


holes and cuts as in the cylinder head and cylinder block so that the
packing (gasket) placed between the cylinder block and cylinder
head does not interfere with the flow of gases or water or bolts
passed.

2.

The gasket prevents leakage and ensures tight fit joints.

3.

Sealing action is provided by the elastic deformation of the gasket


material.

4.

The material of the gasket must be able to withstand75 high pressure

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Gaskets
1.

The types of gaskets which are frequently used are,


1.

Copper-asbestos gasket.

2.

Steel-asbestos gasket.

3.

Single sheet rigid or corrugated gasket.

4.

Stainless steel gasket.

5.

Cork gasket Used for the oil pan in crankcase.

6.

Rubber gasket.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston
1.

A piston of an internal combustion engine is in the form of an


inverted bucket shape and it is free to slide in the cylinder barrel.

2.

The gas tightness is secured by means of flexible piston rings, which


are in the grooves of the piston, cut in the upper part of piston.

3.

A piston of an internal combustion engine serves three functions,


1.

It forms a moveable wall of the combustion chamber.

2.

It transmits turning force to the crankshaft via the connecting rod.

3.

It functions like a crosshead and transmits side thrust.


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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston
1.

The piston must posses the following qualities,


1.

It must be strong enough to withstand high pressure caused due to the


combustion of fuel.

2.

It must be very light in weight to have minimum primary and secondary


forces.

3.

The piston material should be a good conductor of heat so that


detonation is suppressed and higher compression ratio is possible.

4.

The piston operation must not be noisy.

5.

The piston must be of less coefficient of expansion.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston
1.

An engine having a piston and cylinder head of aluminium alloy can


be used at a compression ratio of 6.3 and it gives more power and
fuel economy than a similar engine having a cast iron piton and
cylinder head at a compression ratio of 5.3.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston Rings
1.

Piston rings are those rings which are fitted in the grooves provided
in pistons. Their functions are,
1.

To seal the passage inside the cylinder so that gases cannot leak from one side
of the piston to the other side, which affects power and fuel consumption.

2.

They provide a path for conducting heat from the piston head to the cylinder
walls, thus helping in reducing the piston temperature.

3.

The crankcase oil, used for engine lubrication is splashed by the crank, is
prevented from passing into the combustion chamber. Piston rings scrap the
excess oil from the cylinder walls and only a thin film of oil is left to lubricate
the piston rings.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston Rings
1.

Piston rings are not completely closed and are provided with a gap at
the ends.

2.

The gap allows the rings to fit over the piston and lets the rings
expand without breaking.

3.

Generally two forms of gaps are provided.


1.

Straight or normal gap

2.

Diagonal or scarf gap


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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston Rings
1.

Piston ring materials have changed from plain cast iron to materials such as
pearlitic and modular iron as well as steel. Piston rings may be coated with
chromium or molybdenum materials.

2.

Two types of piston rings widely used are,


1.

Compression ring Used to seal the combustion chamber and to provide a path
for heat transfer from the piston to the cylinder wall, providing effective cooling.

2.

Oil control ring It is similar to a compression ring, but has a circumferential


groove on its outer circumference. The function of the oil rings is to strip some of
the lubricating oil from the cylinder walls and return the oil to the crankcase
through the radial passage in the oil ring.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston Rings

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston Pin
1.

A piston pin is also known as wrist pin or gudgeon pin because of its
similarity in construction with human hand and arm joint.

2.

A piston pin is a link for connecting the piston and the connecting
rods.

3.

Since the piston pin reciprocates with the piston, its weight is
minimized by making it hollow, so that inertia forces at piston TDC
are decreased.

4.

The piston pin is fitted in the bosses which are in the piston.
84

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Piston Pin
1.

Piston pins are made of case hardening steel, either plain carbon
steel, nickel steel or chrome-nickel steel.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Connecting Rod
1.

The connecting rod is a link, which connects the reciprocating piston


and the rotating crank.

2.

Most connecting rods are made of medium carbon steel which has
0.35 to 0.45% carbon.

3.

However, the connecting rods of heavy duty engines are made of


chrome-nickel and chrome-molybdenum steel.

4.

The connecting rods are drop forged.

5.

Connecting rods are made of I-section.


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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Connecting Rod
1.

The end of the connecting rod connected to the piston pin is called
the small end because its size is smaller.

2.

The other end of the connecting rod attached to the crank pin is
called the big end.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Crank shaft
1.

The crankshaft is an important part of the engine, which converts the


reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion.

2.

This rotary motion of the crankshaft is used to rotate the shaft of a


machine to get work.

3.

The motion of the piston is transmitted to the crank by the


connecting rod.

4.

The crankshaft is subjected to torsional and bending stresses and is


supported on the crankcase structure on large bearings.
88

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Crank shaft
1.

A crankshaft is composed of crankpins, crank arms, crank journals


and driving ends.

2.

Generally cranks are made of medium carbon steel and forged in a


single piece.

3.

The physical properties of the material are restored by suitable heat


treatment, consisting of normalizing, reheating and quenching.

89

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Crank shaft

90

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cam shaft
1.

The camshaft receives the drive from the crankshaft.

2.

A camshaft consists of cams.

3.

Components like fuel pump, lubricating oil pump, generator, ignition


unit and fan are driven by the camshaft.

4.

Either gear drive or chain drive may be used between the crankshaft
and the camshaft.

5.

Non-metallic gear on a camshaft give noiseless drive.

6.

Usually Bakelite is used to mould gear with helical teeth.


91

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cam shaft
1.

Bakelite has a considerable degree of elasticity and it can also


withstand greater loads than a cast iron gear at high speed.

92

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Cam shaft

93

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Valves
1.

The valves used in an engine following four-stroke cycle are


mushroom-shaped with a conical seating surface.

2.

The valve head rests in the cylinder head on conical seating, the
angle of the cone being 45.

3.

The valve stem passes through a guide, which has a plain hole.

4.

The valve guide is fitted in the cylinder head casting.

5.

The valve is closed and pressed on its seat by a spring or springs


coiled in opposite directions.
94

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Valves
1.

The valves in the modern engines are made of special alloy steels
which are capable of retaining their mechanical strength at high
temperatures

2.

They are able to resist the corrosive and erosive effects of the high
temperature and high velocity of cylinder gases.

3.

The inlet valve is made up of chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel


containing 0.35-0.65% chromium, 0.35-0.75% nickel and 0.120.25% molybdenum along with carbon and manganese.
95

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Valves
1.

The exhaust valves, which run at high temperatures are made of


silicon-chromium alloy steel.

2.

But nowadays, the exhaust valve is made of austenitic steel, which is


better in impact value, hot hardness and resistance to oxidation and
corrosion.

3.

Austenitic steel contains high percentage of chromium and nickel.

96

COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Valves

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Manifolds
1.

The passages in the cylinder head leading to or from the valves are
called ports.

2.

The system of pipes, which connect the intake ports of various


engines, is called the inlet manifold.

3.

If the exhaust ports are similarly connected to a common exhaust


system, then this system of piping is called the exhaust manifold.

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COMPONENTS OF AN ENGINE
Manifolds

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NSK - APEC

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