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A PRACTICAL TRAINING SEMINAR ON

NHPC FARIDABAD
SUBMITTED TOMr. SANDEEP TOSHNIWAL
H.O.D (ECE)

SUBMITTEBD BYAMARDEEP

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
A SCHEMATIC VIEW OF HYDRO POWER PLANT
HISTORY OF HYDRO POWER PLANT
HOW A HYDROELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM WORKS
NATIONAL POLICY ON HYDROPOWER IN INDIA
TURBINES
POWER HOUSE
POWER GENERATION
ADVANTAGES OF HYDRO POWER PLANT
DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRO POWER PLANT
CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
Hydroelectric power (hydropower) systems

convert the kinetic energy in flowing water


into electric energy.
Falling or flowing water turns a propeller like

piece called a turbine.


The turbine turns a metal shaft in an electric

generator which produces electricity.

HISTORY OF HYDROPOWER

The first hydroelectric power dam in the world was built in


Appleton, Wisconsin in 1882.

In India, Jamshed ji Tata built the first hydroelectric power dam

in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra in the early 1900s to supply


power to Bombays Cotton and Textile Mills.
He took the British Governments permission to build dams,

namely the Andhra, Sirowata, Valvan and Mulshi hydel dams in


the Western Ghats to generate electricity using high rainfalls in the
hills as storage.

HOW A HYDROELECTRIC POWER


SYSTEM WORKS?
o Flowing water is directed

at a

turbine.

o The flowing water causes the turbine

to rotate, converting the waters


kinetic energy into mechanical energy.

The mechanical energy produced by the turbine is

converted into electric energy using a turbine


generator.
Inside the generator, the shaft of the turbine spins a
magnet inside coils of copper wire.
It is a fact of nature that moving a magnet near a
conductor causes an electric current.

NATIONAL POLICY ON HYDROPOWER IN INDIA

Aim To accelerate the development of Hydropower


Introduced In 1998
Introduced by Ministry of Power (MoP) and Government of

India (GoI)
With Central, State and Private hydropower projects
contributing 3455 MW, 5810 and 550 MW respectively, the GoI
aims to reach the total capacity of 9815 MW during the ninth
plan. (The XIth Plan aims capacity addition of 18781 MW in
the hydropower sector)

TURBINES
turbines are used to convert the energy water

of falling water into mechanical energy.


water turbine is a rotaryenginethat takes

energy from moving water.


flowing water is directed on to the blades of a

turbine runner, creating a force on the blades.

Since the runner is spinning, the force acts

through a distance n this way, energy is


transferred from the water flow to the
turbine.
The principal types of turbines are:
1)Impulse turbine
2)Reaction Turbine

Impulse turbines

: Mainly used in high head plants.

the entire pressure of water is converted into kinetic energy in

a nozzle and the velocity of the jet drives the blades of turbine.
The nozzle consist of a needle, and quantity of water jet falling

on the turbine is controlled this needle placed in the tip of the


nozzle.
If the load on the turbine decreases, the governor pushes the

needle into the nozzle, thereby reducing the quantity of water


striking the turbine.

Examples of Impulse turbines are:


PeltonWheel.
Turgo
Michell-Banki (also known as the Cross

flow or Ossberger turbine.

PELTON
TURBINE

Reaction turbines

Are mainly for low and medium

head plants.
In reaction turbine the water enters the runner partly with

pressure energy and partly with velocity head.


Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are

used in low (<30m/98 ft) and medium (30-300m/98


984 ft)head applications.
In reaction turbine pressure drop occurs in both fixed and

moving blades.

In this turbine the runner blades changed

with respect to guide vane opening.


As the sudden decrease of load takes
place, the guide vane limit decreases
according to that runner blade closes.
Examples of reaction turbines are:
Francis turbine
Kaplan turbine

Power House

Power

house
contains
the
electro
mechanical equipment i.e. hydro power
turbine, Generator, excitation system,
main
inlet
valves,
transformers,
Switchyard, DC systems, governor, bus
duct, step up transformers, step down
transformers, high voltages switch gears,
control metering for protection of systems.

POWER GENERATION
The amount of electricity that can be
generated by a hydropower plant depends on
two factors:
flow rate - the quantity of water flowing in
a given time; and
head - the height from which the water falls.
The greater the flow and head, the more
electricity produced.

Flow Rate = the quantity of water


flowing
Head = the height from which water

ADANTAGES OF HYDRO
POWER PLANT

No fuel charges,
Running cost almost nil,
No stand by losses,
Highly reliable,
Efficiency does not decrease with time,
Construction and operation wise very
simple,
Maintenance cost very less,
Starts quickly and synchronizes fast,

DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRO
POWER PLANT
o Higher initial cost.
o Takes long time of erection.
o Plants are setup at distant places so

transmission losses increases.


o Totally dependent on the availability of
water.
o Larger area required,
o Period of installation time is high.

CONCLUSION
As I am interested to work in networking and

communication field learn a lot at NHPC


Power which is the backbone of our country,
almost 33% get lost in transmission.
In my internship I came to know that with the
help of IT&C we can reduce AT&C losses.
I have also learnt about the network
connectivity at NHPC LTD.

QUERIES