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PowerPoint Slides
to accompany

Electric Machinery
Sixth Edition

A.E. Fitzgerald
Charles Kingsley, Jr.
Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 4
Introduction to Rotating
Machines
4-1

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4.1 ELEMENTARY CONCEPT


Electromechanical energy conversion occurs when changes
in the flux linkages resulting from mechanical motion.

e(t )

Magnetic
Field
Horizontal
axis

d
dt

Producing voltage in the


coil
Rotating the winding in
magnetic field
Rotating magnetic field
through the winding

e(t)

4-2

Stationary winding and time


changing magnetic field
(Transformer action)

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Armature winding: AC current carrying winding


Synchronous machine
Induction machine
(stationary)
DC machine

Armature winding is
stator winding

Armature winding is on

the rotor
Field winding: DC current carrying winding
DC machine

Field winding is on the stator

Synchronous machine

Field winding is on the rotor

Note: Permanent magnets produce DC magnetic flux and


are used
in the place of field windings in some machines.
VRM (Variable Reluctance Machines)
on the rotor
Stepper Motors
gaps)

4-3

No windings
(non-uniform air-

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4.2 INTRODUCTION TO AC AND DC MACHINES


AC Machines: Synchronous Machines and Induction
Machines

Synchronous Machines:

Two-pole, single phase machine


Rotor rotates with a constant
speed
Constraction is made such that
air-gap flux density is sinusoidal
Sinusoidal flux distribution
results with sinusoidal induced
voltage

(a) Space distribution of flux density and


(b) corresponding waveform of the generated voltage for
the single-phase generator.

4-4

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Four-pole, single phase


machine
a1,-a1 and a2,-a2 windings
connected in series
The generator voltage goes
through two complete cycles per
revolution of the rotor. The
frequency in hertz will be twice
the speed in revolutions per
second.

ae
4-5

p
a
2

p n
fe
2 60

n: rpm
fe: Hz

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Hydroelectric power plant (D. Yldrm, T Lecture Notes)

4-6

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Hydroelectric power plant

genera
tor

turbine

4-7generator
sets

hydropower-plant-generator.s wf

giant shaft
connecting

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715 MW generator

Diameter of
rotor:
16 meters

Rotating mass:
4-8

2650 ton

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Field winding is a two-pole


distributed winding
Winding distributed in
multiple slots and arranged
to produce sinusoidal
distributed air-gap flux.
Why some synchronous
generators have salientpole rotor while others
have cylindirical rotors?
Answer: In salient-pole
machines the number of
poles can be large
therefore they will be able
to operate in slow speed to
produce 50 Hz voltage.

4-9

Elementary two-pole
cylindrical-rotor field
winding.

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Schematic views of three-phase generators: (a)


two-pole, (b) four-pole, and (c) Y connection of
the windings.
Figure 4.12

4-10

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Induction Machines:
The stator winding
excited by ac current.
The current produces a
rotating magnetic field
which in turn produces
currents in rotor
conductors due to
induction.
These machines mostly
used as motors.
Rotor windings are
short circuited
(electrically) and
frequently have no
external connections.
Stator and rotor fluxes
rotate in synchronism
with each other and that
torque is related to the
relative displacement
between them.
Rotor does not rotate
4-11 synchronously

Typical induction-motor speedtorque characteristic.


Figure 4.15

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Typical Induction Motor

4-12

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Windings placed in stator slots

4-13

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Inside View of An Induction Motor

4-14

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DC Machines:
Armature winding on the
rotor with current
conducted from it by
means of carbon brushes

Elementary dc
machine with
commutator.

4-15

Figure 4.17

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4.3 MMF OF DISTRIBUTED WINDINGS


(a) Schematic view of flux
produced by a
concentrated,
full-pitch winding in a
machine with a uniform
air gap. (b) The air-gap
mmf produced
by current in
this winding.
Figure 4.19

Fourier Analysis

Fag1

4 Ni

cos a
2

( Fag1 ) peak

4-16

4 Ni

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AC Machines:
The mmf of one phase of a distributed
two-pole,
three-phase winding with full-pitch coils.
Figure 4.20

4 k N ph ia
p

cos a
Fag1

p
2

Winding factor (usually


between 0.85 and 0.95)

N ph Series turns per phase

4-17

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Example 4.1: The phase-a two-pole armature winding of figure below


can be considered to consists of 8 Nc-turn full-pitch coils
connected in series, with each slot contaning two coils. There are
a total of 24 armature slots, and thus each slot is separated by
3600 /24=150. Assume angle a is measures from the magnetic
axis of phase a such that the four slots containing the coil sides
labeled a are at 67.50, 82.50, 97.50, and 112.50. The opposite sides
of each coil are thus found in the slots found at -112.50, -97.50,
-82.50, and 67.50, respectively. Assume this winding to be
carrying current ia.
a) Write an expression for the space-fundamental mmf produced by
the two coils whose sides are in the slots at a=112.50 and -67.50.
b) Write an expression for the space-fundamental mmf produced by
the two coils whose sides are in the slots at a=67.50 and -112.50.
c) Write an expression for the space-fundamental mmf of the
complete armature winding.
d) Determine the winding factor kw for this distributed winding.

4-18

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The air-gap mmf of a distributed winding on the rotor


of a round-rotor generator.

Fag1

4-19

4 kr N r I r
p

cos r

p
2

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DC Machines:
Cross section of a two-pole
dc machine.

4-20

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(a) Developed
sketch of the dc
machine
(b) mmf wave;
(c) equivalent
sawtooth mmf wave,
its fundamental
component,
and equivalent
rectangular current
sheet.
Sawtooth waveform
because of
restrictions imposed
by the commutator.
Peak value of
fundamental
component

8
0.81
2

4-21

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(a) Cross section of a four-pole dc machine;


(b) development of current sheet and mmf wave.

( Fag ) peak
4-22

Na
ia

p

( Fag1 ) peak

8 Na
ia
2
p

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Four Pole Stator of a DC Motor:

4-23

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Rotor of a DC Motor:

4-24

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4-25

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Parts of a small DC motor

4-26

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4.4 MAGNETIC FIELDS IN


ROTATING MACHINERY
The air-gap mmf
and radial
component
of Hag for a
concentrated
full-pitch winding.

4 Ni
cos a
H ag1
2g
Distributed
winding:

4 k w N ph ia
p
cos a
H ag1

gp
2

4-27

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Example 4.2: A four-pole synchronous ac


generator with a smooth air gap has a
distributed rotor winding with 263 series
turns, a winding factor of 0.935, and an air
gap of length 0.7 mm. Assuming the mmf
drop in the electrical steel to be negligible,
find the rotor-winding current required to
produce a peak, space-fundamental
magnetic flux density of 1.6 T in the
machine air gap.

4-28

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Machines with non-uniform air gaps.


Structure of typical salient-pole machines: (a) dc machine
and (b) salient-pole synchronous machine.

4-29

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Finite-element solution of the magnetic field distribution


in a salient-pole dc generator. Field coils excited; no
current in armature coils. (General Electric Company.)

4-30

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Flux distribution in a 4-pole salient-pole generator

Colors
represent the
strength of B.
Blue to Red :
The flux density
increases

4-31

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4.5 ROTATING MMF WAVES IN AC MACHINES


Single-phase-winding
space-fundamental
air-gap mmf:
(a) mmf distribution of
a single-phase winding
at various times;
(b) total mmf Fag1
decomposed into two
traveling wavesF and
F +; (c) phasor
decomposition
of Fag1.

4 k w N ph ia
p
cos a
Fag1

p
2

ia I a cos et
4-32

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MMF Wave of a Polyphase Winding


Simplified twopole threephase stator
winding.

ia I m cos et
ib I m cos(et 1200 )
ic I m cos(et 1200 )

4-33

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Instantaneous phase currents under balanced


three-phase conditions.
Figure 4.30

4-34

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The production of a rotating magnetic field by


means
of three-phase currents.
Figure 4.31

4-35

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Crosssectional
view of an
elementary
three-phase
ac machine.
Figure 4.32

4-36

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Voltage between the


brushes in the
elementary dc machine
of Fig. 4.17.
Figure 4.33

4-37

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Elementary two-pole machine with smooth air


gap:
(a) winding distribution and (b) schematic
representation.
Figure 4.34

4-38

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Simplified two-pole machine: (a) elementary


model and
(b) vector diagram of mmf waves. Torque is
produced
by the tendency of the rotor and stator magnetic
fields
to align. Note that these figures are drawn with
sr positive, i.e., with the rotor mmf wave Fr
leading that of the stator Fs.
Figure 4.35

4-39

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The mmf and


H field of a
concentrated
full-pitch
linear
winding.
Figure 4.36

4-40

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Typical
opencircuit
characteris
tic and airgap line.
Figure 4.37

4-41

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Finiteelement
solution for
the flux
distribution
around a
salient pole.
(General
Electric
Company.)
Figure 4.38

4-42

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Flux-density
wave
correspondi
ng to Fig.
4.38 with its
fundamenta
l and thirdharmonic
components
.
Figure 4.39

4-43

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Three-coil system showing components of


mutual
and leakage flux produced by current in coil 1.
Figure 4.40

4-44

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Flux
created by
a single coil
side in
a slot.
Figure 4.41

4-45

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Problem 4.8: (a) full-pitch coil and (b) fractionalpitch coil.


Figure 4.43

4-46

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Elementary
generator for
Problem 4.13.
Figure 4.44

4-47

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Elementary
cylindrical-rotor,
two-phase
synchronous
machine for
Problem 4.22.
Figure 4.45

4-48

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Schematic twophase, salientpole


synchronous
machine for
Problem 4.24.
Figure 4.46

4-49