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DC MOTORS

TYPES OF DC MOTORS

Permanent Magnet DC Motors


Separately Excited DC Motors
Shunt DC Motors
Series DC Motors
Compound DC Motors

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor

Similar in construction to the introductory example


Metallic contacts (brushes) are used to deliver electrical
energy
Rotational speed proportional to the applied voltage
Torque proportional to the current flowing through the motor
Advantages:
+ Low cost (high volume demand)
+ Simple operation
Disadvantages:
Medium efficiency
Poor reliability (brush, commutator wear out)
Strong potential source of electromagnetic interference

How Does a Permanent


Magnet DC Motor Work?
"DC Motors" use magnets to produce
motion
Permanent magnets

SOUTH

NORTH

How Does a Permanent


Magnet
DC
Motor
Work?
"DC Motors"
use
magnets
to produce
motion
Permanent magnets
An electromagnet armature

SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
Rotating
Armature
Electromagnet
armature
is mounted on
axle so that it can rotate

SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Commutator
Motor
Electromagnet
armature isand
mounted on
axle so that it can rotate
Brushes
A commutator makes an electrical
contact with the
motor's brushes

SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor Commutator
Commutator is comprised of two
Structure
"near-halves" of a ring

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
Commutator
Commutator
is comprised of two "near-halves"
of a ring
Structure

Mounted on the armature's axle to rotate with


the rotor

Armature

Permanent Magnet DC
Commutator
Motor
Armature's
windings are connected to the
commutator
Structure

Permanent Magnet DC
Commutator
andto the
Motor
Armature's
windings are connected
commutator
Brushes

Brushes connect the commutator to the battery

electromagnet

+
SOUTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Motorflows
Electromagnet
Current
through the armature's
windings,
which polarizes the
Polarization

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
The like magnets
(NORTH-NORTH and SOUTHMotor
Rotation

SOUTH) repel
As the like magnets repel, the armature rotates,
creating mechanical motion
-

+
SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
Rotation
Direction?
What direction
will the
armature spin?

Clockwise? Counterclockwise?
-

Counterclockwise ?
SOUTH

NORTH
Clockwise ?

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
Rotation
Direction?
To determine the direction of the motor's rotation,

e
Forc

ag

ne
tic

Fie
ld

we need to use the "Left Hand Rule"

Cu
rre
n

Left Hand Rule


Start with two opposite
SOUTH
ends of

magnet

NORTH

Left Hand Rule:


Magnetic
The magneticField
field (B) is from
the NORTH
pole to
SOUTH

the
opposite SOUTH pole
The pointing finger
NORTH

screen

followsB
B into

Left Hand Rule:


Current
Flow
Current flows in
a wire through

the magnetic field from left


to right
SOUTH
I1

The middle finger


follows I1 right,
or I2 left
NORTH

I2

Left Hand Rule:


Force
The
force, F, acting on each wire
is in
F1 the direction of the
SOUTH

I1

thumb
The wire with I1

NORTH

down

is pushed up,
F2

I2

I2

Left Hand Rule:


Force
The magnitude of F is give by:
|F|=|I|**|B|
I1

F1

SOUTH

where is the
length of the
wire in B
NORTH

I2
F2

Left Hand Rule:


Loop
Current
If the current
flows in a loop,
cause the

force(s)
Fthe SOUTH
I

loop to rotate

NORTH

will

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
MagneticRotation
field is from right to left
Imagine current flows out of the screen in
this cross section
-

+
SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
Magnetic Rotation
field is from right to left
Imagine current flows out of the screen in this
cross section
The force causes the armature to rotate
clockwise
-

SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Rotation
Motor
At some point,
the commutator halves will
rotate away from the brushes
Momentum keeps the electromagnet and the
commutator ring rotating
-

+
SOUTH

NORTH

with the other brush, the current in the


windings is reversed
+
SOUTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
When theRotation
commutator halves reconnect

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
When
theRotation
commutator halves reconnect

with the other brush, the current in the


windings is reversed
The polarity is reversed and the armature
continues to rotate
-

SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC
Motor
Magnetic Rotation
field is from right to left
Imagine current flows out of the screen in this
cross section
The force causes the armature to rotate
clockwise
-

SOUTH

NORTH

Controlling a Permanent
Magnet
DC
(PMDC)
Motorwith an
Bi-directional
PM DC
motors are controlled
"H-Bridge" circuit consisting of the motor and four
power switches

Turning On a PMDC Motor


One switch is closed in each leg of the
"H"
One switch is open in each leg of the "H"

Current

Turning On a PMDC Motor


the
Other
Direction
in
One
switch
is closed
in each leg of the
"H"
One switch is open in each leg of the "H

Current

Controlling a Permanent
DCmotors
(PMDC)
Motor by a
Magnet
Unidirectional
are controlled
half-H bridge circuit

Current