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Forces

4th July 2015

What is a Force?
A force can be a push or pull.
A force has magnitude and direction.
A force can arise when one object exerts a
force onto another object.
A force does not necessarily result in motion.

A force...

... is a push or
pull.

... is a vector.

... acts on an
object.

... requires an
agent.

... is a contact force or a


long-range force.

7K Identifying forces Effects of a force

Forces can effect things in 3 ways. Can you name them?


Effect 1. A force can change
the shape of an object.

Effect 2. A force can change


the speed of an object,
making it faster or slower.
Effect 3. A force can change
the direction of an object.

How is Force Measured?


SI unit for Force is Newtons (N).
The more Newtons, the greater the force.
Hence the value of the newtons of a given
force is the magnitude.

How is Force Measured


It is measured using the spring scale.
It consists of a spring fixed at one end with a
hook to attach an object at the other. It works
by Hookes Law, which states that the force
needed to extend a spring is proportional to the
distance that spring is extended from its rest
position.

How is Force Measured


A spring balance (spring scale) can only
measure weight and not mass.
SI unit of weight is Newtons (N).
Gravity or also known as a downward force is
used to operate the spring scale.

Example of A Spring Scale

Grams

Newtons
The mass of an object can be
measured in terms of
newtons (N). This is used by
Karung guni men to weigh a
bundle of newspapers and
quote a price when old
newspapers are sold to them

Gravity A downward force and also a


non-contact force
The pulling force of gravity always acts towards the
centre of the Earth, wherever you are on the planet.

A non-contact
force is
a force applied to an
object by another
body that is not in
direct contact with it.
The most familiar
example of a noncontact force
is weight.

Uses of Gravity A downward Force


Why does rain always
fall downwards
towards the Earth?

Why dont people on the


other side of the Earth
fall off into outer space?

Why doesnt
water come out of
the tap sideways?

Weight
The effect of the force of gravity on an object is called the
objects

weight

Weight is a force and is measured in Newtons.


How is weight different to mass?

Does Gravity differ based


on your location?
Gravity changes depending on where you
are in the Universe. So the answer is YES!

What happens to weight and mass when gravity changes?

Location: Planet Earth!

Location: The Moon!

Location: Outer Space!!

Other types of non-contact force


Magnetic force when two magnets of unlike
poles attract each other.
Magnetic force when two magnets of like
poles repel each other.
Electrical force Non-contact force of electrical
charges. (Remember your circuit topic?)

Contact forces
Involve physical contact
between objects.
-

Contact Force
Contact forces arise when two objects interact due to
surfaces in contact. These forces can be broken into two
components parallel and perpendicular to the surface
The component parallel to the surface is the friction
force.
The component perpendicular to the surface is the
normal force. (normal is a mathematical term meaning
perpendicular.)

3, 2, 1 Contact!
What are some contact forces?
A contact force is a push or a pull on one object by
another object that is touching it.
An applied force is a type of contact force in which one
object directly pushes or pulls on another object. For
example, in tug of war, you apply a pulling force to the
rope.
A spring force (or elastic force) is the force exerted by a
bending or stretching object on any object that is attached
to it.

What are some examples of contact forces?


Friction is the force an object exerts on an
object that moves across it. The force of friction
tends to oppose the motion of the object.
Air resistance is a type of contact force that air
exerts on moving objects. Like friction, air
resistance tends to oppose the motion of an
object. When an object is thrown downwards,
gravity pulls it downs, hence air resistance
would act upwards.

7K Friction What is friction?

Put your palms together and rub hard. What happens?

You are creating the force called

f r i c t i o n.

Friction occurs when any two surfaces move against each


other and tries to stop the movement.
Heat is generated as a result of friction.
Which type of surface generates more friction,
a rough surface or a smooth surface?

Classify the Forces

A foot kicking a soccer ball


An apple falling off a tree
A paper clip sliding towards a magnet
A bat striking a baseball
Two magnets pushing apart from one another
The moon orbiting the Earth
A compass needle turning North
A hand pushing an object
Shoes rubbing against the floor

Homework
1. The units that forces are measured in are called
a) Joules.
b) kilograms.
c) Newtons.

2. Gravity and magnetism are examples of


a) contact forces.
b) non-contact forces.
c) police forces.

Homework
3. The force that occurs when two surfaces move against each
other is called
a) contact force.
b) fiction.
c) friction.
4. In icy weather roads are covered with sand. How does the sand
effect the amount of friction between car tyres and the road?
a) Reduces friction.
b) Increases friction.
c) Has no effect.

Homework
5. A dog being taken for a walk is pulling on the lead held by its
owner. The pulling force of the dog increases. What
happens to the speed of its owner?
a) Speeds up.
b) Slows down.
c) Changes direction.
6. The upwards force that slows down a sky diver as they
fall through the air is called
a) weight.
b) air conditioning.
c) air resistance.

Homework
7. The pulling force of the Earths gravity always acts
towards the centre of
a) the Moon.
b) the Earth.
c) the Sun.
8. A computer on a desk does not move because there are
a) no forces acting on it.
b) unbalanced forces acting on it.
c) balanced forces acting on it.

Homework
9. An astronaut drops a 1 kg bar of chocolate in outer space. What is
the weight of the bar of chocolate?
a) 10 N.
b) 1 N.
c) 0 N.
10. A spacecraft has a mass of 9000 kg on Earth. What would
its weight be on the Moon?
a) 1500 N.
b) 9000 N.
c) 54 000 N.

E-Learning
Homework Download the powerpoint slides from
google drive and go through the animation.
Press F5 to activate slides and follow instructions.

Homework Download the powerpoint slides from


google drive and go through the animation.
Press F5 to activate slides and follow instructions.

Click on the
picture to find the force

What is Friction?

Click on blue arrow in


a circle to watch
animation