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Non Destructive

techniques
BY
Dhairyashil Shinde
Omkar Tidke
Chetan Butle
Vinit Patil
Pravinkumar A.K.
Vikram Choudhary
Jennifer Rajkumari.

NDT for Concrete:


Introduction

Powerful Technique for evaluating with regard to


their strength and durability apart from
assessment and quality of hardened concrete
without or partial damage to concrete.

Concrete is not loaded to failure, therefore, the


strength inferred or estimated cannot be
expected to yield actual value of strength.

Cost Effectiveness
Destructive Testing : Huge Cost is initially
required for taking the sample and then to test it.
NDT : It is very easy and simple and a lot many
tests can be performed on concrete less than
single amount required for sampling of concrete.

Assessment using NDT Investigation.


Rebound Hammer Test: To estimate the strength and
hardness of Concrete in the Cover region. (IS 13311 Part 2).
UPV Test: To measure uniformity, homogeneity,
compactibility and presence of cracks or voids, thus
representing durability of Concrete. (IS 13311 Part 1).
Core Test: To evaluate in-situ compressive strength of
Concrete.
(IS 156 & ASTM C42/41)
Corrosion Potential: Half Cell Potential (ASTM C876-9),
Resistivity and RCPT (ASTM C1202), to know about extent
and rate of on going corrosion.
Bar Locater and Cover Meter: To know the structural
strength and protection to reinforcement by cover
concrete.
Carbonation: To evaluate extent of Carbonation for
strength and corrosion estimation.

Rebound Hammer test


Objectives:
1. To assess the quality of concrete in
relation to standard requirements.
2. To estimate the Compressive Strength
of Concrete with the help of suitable
corrections between rebound index &
compressive strength.
3. To delineate regions of Poor Quality
or deteriorated Concrete in a
structure.
4. To access quality of one element of
the concrete to other.

Rebound Hammer
Apparatus

FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEST RESULTS

Type of Cements
Type of Aggregate
Surface Condition & Moisture
Content of Concrete
Curing and Age of Concrete
Carbonation of Concrete
Surface

Mechanism of Rebound
Hammer

INTERPRETATION OF THE TEST


RESULTS
Average Rebound Number

Quality of Concrete

More than 40

Very Good Hard Layer

30 to 40

Good Layer

20 to 30

Fair Layer

Less than 20

Poor Concrete

Delaminated

ULTRASONIC PULSE
VELOCITY
OBJECTIVES
To access uniformity and homogeneity of Concrete
To access the quality of Concrete in relation to
standard requirements
Detection of the presence and approximate extent
of Cracks, Voids & other imperfection in concrete.
Measurement of changes occurring with time in
the properties of the concrete.
Correlation of Pulse velocity & strength as a
measure of Concrete quality.

FACTORS AFFECTING TEST


RESULTS
1. Smoothness of Contact Surface
2. Influence of path length on pulse velocity
3. Temperature of Concrete
5 - 30 Ideal
30 - 60 (Reduction in UPV upto 5%)
Below 5 (Increase upto 7.5%)
4. Moisture condition of concrete (pulse velocity is
proportional to moisture Content)
5. Presence of reinforcing steel (UPV of R/f is 1.2 to
1.9 times than normal concrete)
6. Stress level in Concrete.

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity


Meter

Techniques measuring Pulse Velocity

Interpretation of Test
Results
Velocity criteria for concrete quality
grading.

Pullout Test
The fundamental principle behind
pull out testing is that the test
equipment designed to a specific
geometry will produce results (pullout forces) that closely correlate to
the compressive strength of
concrete.

Uses
Determine in-situ compressive strength
of the concrete

Ascertain the strength of concrete for


carrying out post tensioning operations.

Determine the time of removal of


forms and shores based on actual insitu strength of the structure.

Terminate curing based on in-situ


strength of the structure.

Half Cell Potential


OBJECTIVES
To evaluate potential of concrete in promoting
corrosion activity of reinforcement by half cell
potential test
To evaluate reinforcing steel in concrete that
has carbonated to the level of the embedded
steel
To compare corrosion activity in outdoor
reinforced concretes of highly variable moisture
or oxygen content, or both, at the embedded
steel.

FACTORS AFFECTING
TEST RESULTS

Moisture
Temperature
Concrete Thickness
Oxygen content of the reinforcement
implicit

Half cell
Potentiometer

Half cell Potentiometer

INTERPRETATION OF
TEST RESULTS
Potential over an
area
More positive than
-0.20 V CSE

-0.20 to -0.35 V CSE


More negative than
-0.35 V CSE

Most likely
outcome

90% probability that no


reinforcing steel is
corroded
(at the time of test)
Corrosion activity of the
reinforcing steel
90% probability that
reinforcing steel is
corroded

Carbonation Test
OBJECTIVES
To assess
1. pH of the concrete
2. Corrosion
Chemicals used: Phenolphthelein solution
(colourless below a pH of 8.2 and is
pink/purple at a pH greater than 10)
Commercially available indicator measures pH
from 1 to 14 with a rainbow spectrum

Factors affecting test results


Dark concrete
Saturation
Extent of drilling

Carbonated concrete

Cover meter test


OBJECTIVES:
To assess
1. Diameter.
2. Location of the R/F.
3. Cover.

Factors affecting test results


Cover measurement may be affected
by neighbouring bars parallel to the
bar being measured.
Magnetic effects from the aggregate
or matrix of the concrete.
Variations in the properties of steel.
Cross-sectional shape of bars.
Roughness of the surface.

Thank You