Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 45

CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION

As.Phd.Ec.Math.Mihaela Vartolomei

“The European Confederation will be achieved,


sooner or later, through the force of things”
Napoleon

1. European Construction, a marching “troop” or an


endless road …
2. Institutional System and the new judicial shape
3. European Symbols and particularities
4. European Policies
5. Dynamics and convergence inside European Union
6. Romania and European Union
8
1. EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTION, A MARCHING “TROOP” OR
AN ENDLESS ROAD …
1.1. END OF THE COLD WAR. MARSHALL PLAN
1.2. THE TREATY OF PARIS. SCHUMAN PLAN
1.3. THE TREATY OF ROMA (THE STEPS OF THE CREATION
OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY)
1.4. THE TREATY OF BRUXELLES
1.5. FROM SIX TO NINE, TO TEN, AND THEN TO TWELVE
1.6. THE SCHENGEN CONVENTION
1.7. THE WHITE BOOK: THE CHARTER OF THE COMMON
MARKET AND THE FULFILMENT OF THE TREATY OF
ROME
1.8. THE EUROPEAN SINGLE ACT - JURIDICAL EXPRESSION
OF THE WHITE BOOK
1.9. THE TREATY OF MAASTRICHT
1.10. THE EUROPE OF THE FIFTEENTH
1.11. THE TREATY OF AMSTERDAM
1.12. THE TREATY OF NICE
1.13. LISBON STRATEGY
1.14. THE ENLARGEMENT TOWARS THE EAST 9
1. EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTION, A MARCHING
“TROOP” OR AN ENDLESS ROAD …
The European Union can be defined as a unique
structure that concretizes the common aspiration of
the sovereign nations of Europe to work and to live
together. During the last 50 years, these nations have
understood the advantages by way of direct contacts
between them, but also the constraints of the
European integration
1.1. END OF THE process.
COLD WAR. MARSHALL
PLAN
 Zurich in Switzerland, on the 19th of September 1946,
Winston Churchill: the necessity of building the United
States of Europe
 the idea of creating an European community at political
level in order to avoid a new conflict between European
states, and at economical level in order to reconstruct the
economies of the region’s countries
After the end of the Second World War the break
between the Soviets and the Occidentals has
been the starting point of the cold war. “Two
Europes” separated by the so-called 1947
appeared iron curtain started to develop in two
different economic-social systems.
 Western Europe is organised around the
reconstruction idea proposed by general Marshall
on 5th July 1947
 Eastern Europe with its fear of losing
sovereignty (it was discussed) drove away
Eastern Europe including USSR from the
programme of uniting and rebuilding the ruined
Europe, devastated from the Second World War.
WESTERN EUROPE
Marshall Plan (EECO Countries)

Spain joins the EECO in 1959

Council for Reciprocal Economic Aid


1949
Albania, member CREA from 1950 till 1961

The Iron Curtain

Europe’s configuration until the fall of the Berlin wall


1.2. TREATY OF PARIS. SCHUMAN PLAN

 the 9th of May 1950 , “Schuman Plan for European


integration” the birth certificate of European Coal and
Steel Community (ECSC), the base of communitarian
construction, concretized by signing of the Treaty of
European Coal and Steel Community, in Paris at the 18-
th of April 1951 (between six countries).
 The Treaty of Roma was set up for 50 years, and after
2002, ECSC is used as a financial tool for research and
development in mines industry.
 From economic point of view, the ECSC action benefits
from the reconstruction of the western European
countries and of the positive effects of free trade inside
a bigger market.
European Coal and Steel Community (the sixth countries)
1.3. THE TREATY OF ROMA (THE STEPS OF THE
CREATION OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC
COMMUNITY)

 The signing (by the sixth founders states) of the


Rome Treaty on 25 March 1957 gives birth to the
European Economic Community (EEC). The treaty is
only a starting point which foresees ensuring
“economic and social progress of their countries by
common action to eliminate barriers which divide
Europe” (preamble). A second treaty, signet on the
same day, institutes the European Community of
Atomic Energy (EURATOM) which intends to favor
the development and the use of atomic energy in
peaceful purposes in Europe.
 Great Britain refused to participate, that will create
in 1960 at Stockholm of the European Free Trade
Association (EFTA) with Austria, Denmark,
Switzerland, Norway, Portugail, and Sweden.
Objectives
 Accomplishing a common market based firstly on a Customs Union;
 Establishing common policies (agriculture, transport, external
trade);
 Creating an European Social Fund (ESF) and an European
Investment Bank (EIB);
 Extending the Union to other European democratic states (the
united Kingdom, for example);
 New institutions to achieve better these different missions.
 The common market is an objective following the custom union and
means beside the free movement of goods, ensuring the free
movement of services, capital and workforce.
 The European Social Fund (ESF): was created in 1960 and financed
by contributions from the member states (each trying to
recuperate what it contributed). This fund was meant to improve
living conditions in the union. The ESF has though a limited role.
 The European Investment Bank (EIB): created in 1957. It is a
financial institution of the union. The bank’s capital is subscribed
by the member states. The EIB intervenes by investments (loans)
given to different member states. The EIB is an autonomous
institution lending on the share markets. It contributed to bring to
advantage the lesser favored regions, to improve the transport
infrastructure, to protect the environment and to sustain small and
medium enterprises.
1.4. THE TREATY OF BRUXELLES

 The distinctive executive organs of the ECSC, EEC and


EURATOM merge on 8th April 1965 (this merger
becomes effective on 1st July 1967), by signing the
Treaty of fusion of the three European communities
(ECSC, EEC, EURATOM).
 Ten years from signing the treaties (1698) the customs
duties between the EEC member states are abolished.
The Customs union is achieved; a Common External
Tariff (CET) for third countries enters into force.
 Although the three communities keep themselves their
judicial personality, they will have common institutions:
European Commission (resulted by the fusion of the
High Authorities with EEC Commission), European
Communities Council, the European Court of Justice and
Parliamentary Assembly (the Parliament title is given
by European Single Act, in 1986). The official title of
the European construction is European Communities,
but it used the collocation European Community, EEC or
EC.
1.5. FROM SIX TO NINE, TO TEN, AND THEN TO
TWELVE

 1st January 1973 – Great Britain, Denmark and


Ireland join to the Community, increasing the
number of member states to nine (first
enlargement)
 1st January 1981 – Greece becomes the tenth
member state (the second enlargement)
 1st January 1986 – Spain and Portugal acceded,
increasing the number of member states to twelve
(the third enlargement)
 The twelve stars will mark forever the Union’s flag.
 In the framework of high level reunion of
Fontainebleau, in 25-26 June 1984, it was adopted
also the concept of “the Europe of the citizens”,
that supposed not the coalition of the states but
the union of the peoples.
1.6. THE SCHENGEN CONVENTION
 The Agreements signed on 14th June 1985, complemented
with the Schengen Convention (19th January 1990) foresee
the following:
– Common measures to control immigrations from
outside the EC, especially from Eastern Europe;
– Defining an asylum and immigration policy and
fight against clandestine work and stay;
– Examining asylum requests in the first country of
the Union where the asylum has been requested;
– A list of countries whose citizens must have visas
on entering the Schengen space (more than 100
countries);
– Community informatics files for fight against terror
or theft. The Schengen Information System
(SIS)allows national polices to exchange
information and to exercise rights to pursue
criminals on the territories of other member states,
action performed by the European police office
(EUROPOL) set up by the Maastricht Treaty (in
Hague functions already a unit anti drug of
Europol).
 The Schengen agreements entered partially into
force on 25th March 1995 for seven signing states:
Germany, the Benelux, Spain, France, and Portugal.
These member states started to apply these
agreements on eliminating border controls at
common borders.
 Not all signing countries (it was the case of Austria,
Greece, Italy) were able to integrate themselves in
the Schengen Space at the foreseen date because
they did not meet all the necessary conditions (Spain
and the Netherlands tolerate easy drugs), then
further the difficult problem of external frontiers and
of clandestine immigration both from the East as well
as from the South.
 The Convention is applied since 18th April 1996 as
well as by states that have not signed the Schengen
Agreements: Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and
Norway. Border controls are maintained at the
borders with Ireland and the United Kingdom.
 After the signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam, this
cooperation frame will be included in acquis
communautaire.
1.7. THE WHITE BOOK: THE CHARTER OF THE
COMMON MARKET AND THE FULFILMENT OF THE
TREATY OF ROME

 The Cecchini Report published in 1988 under the title


“The Costs of Non-Europe” presents the potential
advantages of eliminating non-tariff and other barriers
(physical, technical and fiscal).
 The European Commission published on 14th June 1985
the White Book which counts all barriers impeding the
accomplishment of the internal market.
 The White Book proposes an ensemble of legal texts
which should eliminate obstacles from the path of
accomplishing the Common Market.
 The White Book presents the consequences of
eliminating each barrier and stipulates the necessary
accompanying measures.
 The White Book is both a program and a calendar for
accomplishing the Common market and instituting the
Single Market in the period 1985 – 1993.
1.8. THE EUROPEAN SINGLE ACT - JUDICIAL
EXPRESSION OF THE WHITE BOOK
 The Single Act materializing the proposals of the White Book, is
signed on 17th February 1986 by the representatives of the
twelve governments, it is ratified by all member states before its
entering into force, on 1st July 1987. From juridical point of view
it is a treaty.
 The Single European Act intends to strengthen economic and
social cohesion by reducing the lag between the lesser
developed regions and the most favored ones.
 On 1st January 1993 the Common Market set up by the Rome
Treaty of 1957 became officially a Single Market without internal
frontiers. Its objective is to insure the free movement of goods,
services, capitals and persons.
 Internal physical, fiscal and technical frontiers opposing the free
movement of goods have been eliminated.
 “Customs controllers, fiscal or veterinary inspectors have
disappeared from the borders between the Union’s member
states”.
 The European Single Act adopted in 1987 by the heads of the
member states and governments, which represents the first
review of the Treaty of Rome. This stipulates in its preamble “the
will to transform the ensemble of the relations between the
member states in a European Union” and approves “the
objective of a progressive realization of an Economic and
Monetary Union”.
1.9. THE TREATY OF
MAASTRICHT
 The Treaty of Maastricht or the Treaty on the European
Union gives a new “momentum” to the European
construction and reveals the new political dimension,
profoundly difficult of the continuation of the European
project as much covered by its economic and commercial
cover.
 The Treaty has 7 titles regrouped in three “pillars”:
• The first pillar, which modifies the treaties relative to
the instituted “European Communities”. The European
Community, (the new name of the European Economic
Communities – EEC – including ECSC and the Euratom)
titles 2 to 4 of the TEU.
• The second pillar, covers a new area, never approached
in the European accords and treaties: the common
foreign and security policy (CFSP, title 5 of the TEU
• The third pillar initiates a co-operation in the areas of
justice and home affairs (title 6 of the treaty).
Pillar 1 (EMU) Pillar 2 (CESP) Pillar 3 (JHA)

•The European Community


•The European Coal and
Steel Community
Cooperation in matters
•Euratom (Titles II, III and
The Common Foreign and of Justice and
IV of the treaty of
Security Policy Home Affairs
Maastricht)
(CFSP)

The Community method Intergovernmental Intergovernmental


The Importance of the
Commission

Common principles and objectives

Figure 1. The Three Pillars of the Maastricht Treaty


B. A development of the
A. A new level of C. A deepening of democracy
supranational
European integration
(B, C, D)
1. Birth of the citizenship
1. New competences
1. The implementation of The citizens of the Union have the right
the Treaty to vote and to be elected in municipal
and European elections, as well as the
right of free stay in any member state.
Before the completion of They benefit, outside the EU, of
the great market of 1993, Are exercised in the areas consular protection of other states than
the European states of consumer protection, their own. The right to petition, as well
decided on deepening the public health, industrial as the naming of a mediator are
European construction. policy, transeuropean foreseen.
This ahs been translated networks, culture, etc. The
by adopting a new treaty Union continues to set a
at the Summit of 2. The subsidiary principle
social Europe in motion,
Maastricht, on December but without the United
10th , 1991. Kingdom, who obtained
The treaty has been signed It is granted to prevent the excess
an opt-out clause. community intervention
by the heads of state and
of government on
February 7th , 1992.
The subsidiary principle: “in the areas
not in the exclusive competence of the
2. The birth of the Union, it does not intervene, according
European Union 2. The cohesion funds to the subsidiary principle, only if the
purposes of the action cannot be
realized in a sufficient manner by the
The treaty on the The treaty established a member states” (article 32 of Title II of
European Union has been Committee of the Regions the Treaty).
ratified by each of the and added to the existing
twelve member states of structural funds an
the Union, the Danes economic and social 3. The European Parliament
being the last ones after a cohesion fund, whose
second referendum in main objective is to help
June 1993. less developed countries New rights are given to the European
Following this act, the (Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Parliament: the approval of the
European Economic Spain) to be able to Commission whose mandate length
Community (EEC) participate to the coincides with that of the Parliament,
became the European construction of the the participation to the legislative
Community and then, on Economic and Monetary powers (the co-decision procedure with
November 1st , 1993, the Union at the proposed the Council) and the right to have
European Union. deadlines. legislative initiative.
 In the terms of the Maastricht Treaty, the
European Union comprises two components: 1.
the Economic and monetary Union, and 2. the
Political Union. These two fundamental
components assign the commitment of the
member states:
 to endow themselves with a single currency;
 to enlarge the area of competences of the
Community with new areas, especially where
consumer protection is concerned, public
health, Trans- European transport networks,
cooperation for development, industrial policy,
education, training, culture, environment
protection, technological research and
development, social policy;
 to create an European citizenship;
 to increase the powers of the European
parliament;
 to set up a cooperation in the areas of justice
and home affairs between the member states;
 to establish among the member states a
common external and security policy.
1.10. THE EUROPE OF THE FIFTEENTH

 The European Union had always faced the problem of


deepening integration versus that of enlargement
asking the problem of its space boundaries.
 In May 1994, the European Parliament in Strasbourg
decided with a majority of votes for the enlargement
of the EU with other four EFTA countries. Their
populations were asked in referenda in 1994 to
pronounce themselves over the countries’ accession
the EU. In Austria 66% of the population voted for
acceding, in Finland 57%, in Sweden 52%. These
three countries became member states of the EU on
1st January 1995. 52% of Norway’s population by
voting with “No” kept the country outside the EU.
Norway tries to maintain its own identity especially
in areas as oil and fishing.
 Switzerland, another EFTA country suspended its
candidature to the EU after the failure of the
referendum on European Economic Area (EEA) on 6th
December 1992.
1.11. THE TREATY OF AMSTERDAM
 The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty
of the European Union, the Treaties
establishing the European Communities and
certain related acts, commonly known as the
Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on October 2,
1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999; it
made substantial changes to the Treaty of
Maastricht.
 The Amsterdam Treaty meant a greater
emphasis on citizenship and the rights of
individuals, more democracy in the shape of
increased powers for the European Parliament,
a new title on employment, a Community area
of freedom, security and justice, the
beginnings of a common foreign and security
policy (CFSP) and the reform of the
institutions in the run-up to enlargement.
1.12. THE TREATY OF NICE

 The Nice Treaty was signed by European


leaders on 26th of February 2001 and came
into force on 1st of February 2003 (the
entrance into force of the treaty was late
due to Irish vote). The Treaty of Nice
reformed the institutional structure of the
European Union to withstand eastward
expansion, a task which was originally
intended to have been done by the
Amsterdam Treaty, but failed to be
addressed at the time.
1.13. LISBON
STRATEGY

 In March 2000, European Council in


Lisbon set out the Lisbon Agenda,
known as the Lisbon Strategy or
Lisbon Process
 Its aim is to make the EU "the most
dynamic and competitive
knowledge-based economy in the
world, capable of sustainable
economic growth with more and
better jobs and greater social
cohesion, and respect for the
environment by 2010"
1.14. THE ENLARGEMENT TOWARS THE
EAST

 After the fall of the Berlin wall (9th November


1989), the European Council at Strasbourg
adopted on 9th December 1989 the reunification
of Germany and decided the setting up of the
European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD) for helping the Eastern
European countries.
 For the integration of the Central and Eastern
European countries in the EU there have been
set down certain requirements that have to be
met by these countries. These conditions have
been set down by the European Council in
Copenhagen in June 1993 and are:
 a democratic regime respecting human
rights and the rights of minorities;
 a market economy open and competitive;
 the capacity to integrate the acquis
communautaire in all areas of their
national legislations.
1992 report named “Europe and the challenges of its
enlargement” (Official Bulletin of the EC, supplement 3-92)
adopted by the European Council of Copenhagen of June
1993 and explained by the Commission in its
communication called “Agenda 2000”of 16th July 1997.
They are:
- European identity;
- Democratic state;
- Acceptance of the Community acquis;
- Capability to apply the Community system;
- Participation in the three Communities.
Ten countries of Central and Eastern Europe joined
to the EU: Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the
Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia (2004) then Bulgaria
and Romania (2007). Malta and Cyprus joined to EU in
2004.
The countries of Central and Eastern Europe were
and still are find themselves attracted by the EU because
the EU represents for these countries an area of wealth
and peace. They expect from accession to receive means
for modernizing their economies.
The EU oscillates between solidarity, namely a rapid
integration and the fear of delocalization.
Central and Eastern European countries joined EU
2. INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM AND THE NEW
JUDICIAL SHAPE
2.1. Institutions, Organs, Organisms

The concept of community institutions is characterized by the following


specific elements:
Limited by their competences, they have the role to apply the fundamental
constitution and functioning rules of the Communities and of the EU;
 They are created by the founding treaties of the European Communities;
 In the areas they act, they are endowed with the power to pass decisions
and to impose them on the member states;
 From this perspective they represent a separation from the traditional
schemes of international cooperation, where the execution of the treaties
provisions’ are subjected to the availabilities of the signatories, the
national sovereignty being the main cause of the so called “treaties’
paralysis”.
 By their nature, they represent the interests of the states (the Council), the
interests of the Communities (the Commission), the interests of the people
(the Parliament) and the interests of law (the Court of Justice).
 They benefit from a certain judicial, administrative, and financial
autonomy, as a corollary of their functional specificities.
TYPES AND CHATEGORIES OF
INSTITUTIONS
Orientation, direction and
decision Institutions: Control Institutions:
•The European Council; •The European
•The Council of the European Parliament;
Union; •The Court of Justice;
•The European Commission •The Court of Accounts.
THE
INSTITUTIONS
AND ORGANS
SYSTEM OF
THE EU

Organisms with
Organisms with
connection role between the Community and
consultative role:
the member states:
•COREPER (Committee of permanent
•The Economic and
•representatives)
Social Committee;
•The monetary committee;
•The Committee of the
•The committee of the governors of the
Regions.
national banks;
•The committee of agricultural control;
•The FEDER control committee.
The Community
institutional Pentagon

THE THE THE THE COURT THE COURT


COMMISSIO PARLIAMEN COUNCIL OF OF JUSTICE OF
N T THE ACCOUNTS
EUROPEAN Headquarters:
Headquarter Headquarters UNION Luxembourg Headquarters:
s: : Luxembourg
Brussels Strasbourg Headquarters: -Supervision
Brussels and of the good -Financial
-Proposes -Consultation Luxembourg application of supervision of
and -Co-operation the treaties the good
executes -Co-decision -Represents and of the application of
-Represents -Represents the states community the
the the people -Co-decision legislation community
European budget
interests of
the
Community
2.2. EUROPEAN COMMISSION
a) Responsibilities
 With its headquarters in Bruxelles, it is
the essential organ of the European
Union. It has the initiative of the
Community policies by presenting to
the Council the proposals of Community
regulations.
 It is also the Executive Body of the
Communities; it is in charge with the
application of the common policies as
well as the guardian of the treaties; it
represents the EU in the negotiations
with third countries and with
international organizations.
b) Composition and Functions
 Starting with January 1995, the Commission is
composed of 20 members (two for France, Germany,
United Kingdom, Italy and Spain and one for each of
the remaining member states).
 The commissioners are appointed by mutual
agreement by the fifteen governments of the
member states; they are appointed for a period of
five years, commencing on January 1st, 1995, after
a vesting vote of the European Parliament. The
President is named by the heads of states and
governments united in the European Council, and
after consulting the European Parliament.
 The decisions are by general practice adopted by
majority voting.
 The members act in the interests of the Community,
without receiving instructions from any
government. They are subjected solely to the
European Parliament’s control.
 The Commission, with its headquarters in Brussels,
is assisted by administrative services.
2.3. COUNCIL OF
MINISTERS

a) Responsibilities
 The Council of Ministers or the Council
of the European Union adopts
irrevocably the measures proposed by
the Commission.
 It is a true holder of legislative power. It
must not be confused with the European
Council, which reunites at least twice a
year, the heads of states and
governments of the member states.
 The heads of state determines the
principal orientations that must be
taken by the Community (The European
Single Act, the Maastricht Treaty).
b) Composition and Functioning
It is composed of the fifteen representatives of the
governments of the member states, usually the ministers of
foreign affairs, but they can also be represented by more
technical ministers (Agriculture, Finance). Its Presidency is
ensured by a representative of each of the member states for
a period of six months.
The Council reunites periodically in Brussels or in
Luxembourg. Its decisions are prepared by the Committee of
the Permanent Representatives (COREPER).
Until the European Single Act entered into force (1987)
decisions were taken by unanimity, which blocked quite al lot
the decisional process; since then, the qualified majority
voting system is the most used. The rule of unanimity applied
to the following cases: revisions of the treaties, acceding of a
new member state, taxes, duties, industry, culture, social
and regional funds, framework research and technical
development programmers. Unanimity is also in the areas of
common foreign and security policy and cooperation in
justice and home affairs.
Numerous other legislative texts regarding the Single
market, consumer protection, etc. are firstly adopted by the
Council and the Parliament (the co-decision procedures of the
Maastricht Treaty).
2.5. EUROPEAN COURT OF
JUSTICE
a) Responsibilities
 Monitors community law compliance by
all of the member states
 Rules litigations between member states,
between the union and the member
states, between institutions, between
private persons and the Union.
b) Functioning
 It is composed of fifteen judges and nine
advocates general named by the
governments of the member states for a
mandate of six years which can be
renewed.
 It has its headquarters at Luxemburg
2.6. COURT OF
AUDITORS
 Promoted by the Maastricht Treaty to
the rank of an institution, it controls
and discharges the Community’s
incomes and expenditures (the
budget). Its consultation is
compulsory in all Community’s
projects in the financial and
budgetary areas. The Court of
Auditors is composed of 27 members
named for six years by the Council of
Ministers and it has its headquarters
at Luxemburg.
2.6. COMMUNITY
ORGANS
 Economic and Social Committee. It is a consulting
organ of the Council and the Commission, and is
composed of 344 members representing different
categories of economic and social life of some
member states. Sets advices and elaborates
information reports. Its headquarters are located at
Brussels.
 European Investment Bank. It has been set up in
1958 by the EEC Treaty, it gives loans or it
guarantees loans of public organisms or private
businesses of the Community. It contributes to the
setting up of the European cooperation and
development policy. Its capital is subscribed by the
Member States.
 The organs instituted by the Maastricht Treaty are
the Committee of the Regions of the 344
members who will be consulted in the areas of
regional development, culture, vocational training,
and with European Central Bank.
 ECB – Promoter of the common monetary policy. The
main ideas of the ECB statute have been defined in the
Treaty on the Union, Articles 105-109 where the statutory
principles are states:
 The ECB’s independence from any European governments
and institutions, which implies that the ECB has not the right
to give loans to national governments and European
institutions;
 The ECB has as mission to define and apply the monetary
policy of the union, whose main objective is maintaining
price stability. At the same time, the bank manages the
exchange reserves of the member states and has the duty
to define the payments management system inside the Euro
area.
 The National Central Banks are not suppressed they are only
placed under ECB’s authority. Their main role is to control
bank management (prudential control) performing activities
on their national territories.
 The ECB and the National Central Banks form the so called
European System of Central Banks (ESCB), is a federal type
of system where decisions are taken in a friendly way.
ECB’s Governors Council
ECB
ECB’s Directorate

CB
country5

CB
country1
CB
country3 CB
country4
CB
country2

THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF CENTRAL BANKS


European Central
Bank
(ECB)

The Governors’ Council


•Defines the monetary policy
•Decides the directions necessary
to its fulfillments

The National Central The General Council


Banks (NCB) •Supervises the EMS-
•Executes the bis
transactions that form •Takes over the SME
the ESCB missions functions for countries
outside the monetary
Union

The Directorate
•Sets in practice the monetary
policy according to the
Orders guidelines and decisions taken
by the Governors’ Council
THE STRUCTURE OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF CENTRAL BANKS (ESCB)
 The European Mediator handles disputes
between European citizens and community
institutions. The aim of the Institution is to
contribute to the development of democracy
and the reinforcement of the rule of law. The
office has existed since the Treaty on the
European Union signed at Maastricht in 1992.
 Europol (contraction of European Police
Office) is the European Union’s criminal
intelligence agency. It became fully
operational on 1 July 1999.
3. EUROPEAN SYMBOLS AND
PARTICULARITIES
3.1. EUROPEAN FLAG
 The flag was initially adopted by the Council of
Europe in 1955, and it became the official flag of
EU from May 1986. The symbolism of the number
of stars on the flag (fixed at 12, not related to the
number of member states of the EU since it is
originally the flag of the Council of Europe)
arranged in a circle of golden stars on a blue
background is related to solidarity and harmony,
fullness and perfection, and the circle represents
solidarity and harmony.
3.2. EUROPEAN
ANTHEM
 The Council of Europe decided in 1972 as its anthem
“The Ode to Joy”. In 1986, during European Council
from Milano, it was adopted as official anthem of
European Union. It does not replace national anthems,
but is intended to celebrate their shared values.

3.3. DAY OF EUROPE – 9TH OF MAY


 On the 9th of May 1950, Robert Schuman presented in Paris
a declaration on the creation of an organized Europe,
indispensable to maintain the peace relations on European
continent. Because this proposal, known as the "Schuman
declaration", is considered to be the beginning of the
creation of what is now the European Union, in 1985, when
European construction project was already drawn up, the ten
countries of EU decided as the day of EU to be the 9th of
May.
3.4. EU
MOTTO
 The motto of European Union is “United in
diversity” for emphasize that European citizens join
their efforts to maintain peace and prosperity on
European continent.
3.5. EUROPEAN
CURRENCY
 On the obverse side of Euro banknotes are
drawn different model of windows and gates
that represents the cooperation spirit and the
enlargement of EU. On the reverse side of Euro
banknotes are represented bridges to express
the communication between Europe countries.
 Circulating coins (5, 10, 20, 50 cent and 1 and 2
euro) have a common side and also a national
side showing an image specifically chosen by
the country that issued the coin.
EURO Coins („European faces”)
Euro banknotes