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NUTRITION

6.14 TECHNOLOGY USED IN FOOD PRODUCTION

The need to take good care of


plants
1. Sustenance of life
2. Air quality
3. Climate
4. Water quality
5. Control of erosion
6. Fish & wildlife habitat
7. Ecosystem
8. Food
9. Medicine
10. Industrial products
11. Recreation
12. Aesthetics

Technology in food
production
Methods in food production
1. Direct seeding of rice
2. Hydroponics & aeroponics
3. Selective breeding
4. Tissue culture
5. Genetic engineering
6. Soil management
7. Biological control

Direct seeding of rice


Seeds are sown
directly into
paddy field w/o
planting them 1st
at nursery
Save time &
labour
Increases the
yield

Hydroponics
Advantages:
Plants grow faster
produce bigger
yields
Better quality &
taste
No weeding
required
No herbicide
required
No soil-borne
disease problem
Economic use of

Aeroponics
Advantages:
Saves on nutrient
Saves space, & is
easy to set up
Plants grow faster
& higher yield
Better quality &
taste
No weeding
No herbicide
No soil-borne
disease

Selective Breeding
The propagation of plants & animal by sexual
reproduction
Involves selecting parent with desirable traits to
breed to produce better quality of offspring
Advantages:
Shortens maturity time required by both plants &
animal
Improves quality & quantity

Qualities of the psifera variety:


Desirable:
high oil content
Undesirable:
shell-less fruit
fruit drops off before maturity
seeds are difficult to germinate

Qualities of the dura variety:


Desirable:
does not have the weaknesses of
psifera
Undesirable:
low oil content

Crossing psifera with dura produces the


tenera
Qualities of the hybrid tenera:

thin shell
high oil content
bears fruit much faster
larger fruits
palm tree is not too high
fruit does not drop before maturity

Genetic engineering
Manipulation of
DNA to produce
new type of
organisms
Enable a gene
controlling
desirable traits
from one
organism to be
transferred to
the chromosome
of other

Some genetically
modified food are:
a) Oil palm for better
oil composition &
higher vit E
content
b) Banana to delay
ripening
c) Soya beans
d) Tomatoes
improve flavour

Biological control
1. Ladybirds :
aphids &
mealybugs
2. Owls & snakes :
rats
3. Guppies :
mosquito
larvae
4. Ichneumon
wasp : stem
borer

TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT IN
FOOD PROCESSING

Purposes of food
processing:
1. Prevent microorganisms from putrefying or
fermenting food
2. Prevent oxidation from spoiling food
3. Extend the shelf life of food
4. Make food look better & tastier
5. Remove toxins
6. Prevent excess food from spoiling & going to
waste
7. Produce different varieties form a single food
substances
8. Enable easy food distribution to consumer

Food processing method


1.Cooking
2.Pickling with salt, sugar or
vinegar
3.Fermentation
4.Canning
5.Drying
6.Pasteurization
7.UHT

Fermentation
Certain bacteria/
yeast produce
enzymes that
break up foods,
changing their
appearance &
taste
Belacan, tempeh,
beer, cheese

UHT
Ultra Heat
Treatment
Heat milk to
132C for 1
second, then
pack into air
tight containers
High temp kill
bacteria & spores

Pasteurization
Quickly heat milk
to 72C for 15
seconds, or heat
milk to 63C for
30 minutes then
cool it rapidly to
below 5C
Kill most
bacteria; does
not affect taste
milk

The effect of processed food on


health
Food
preservative
s &
additives

The
effects of
processed
food on
health

Food
coloring

Food
enhancer
s