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CONCEPT MAPING

CHAPTER 3
ELECTROMAGNETIS
M

3.3 Analysing
electromagnetic
induction

3.4 Analysing
transformers

3.2 Understanding the


force on a currentcarrying conductor in a
magnetic field.

CHAPTER 3
ELECTROMAGNETISM

3.1 Analysing the magnetic


effect of a current carrying
conductor

3.5 Understanding
the generation and
transmission of
electricity

3.1 - Learning Outcomes


State what an electromagnetism is
Draw the magnetic field pattern due to a
current in a straight wire, coil and solenoid
Plan and conducts experiment to study
factors that affect the strength of the
magnetic field of an electromagnet
Describe application of electromagnets
Note : The right hand grip rule may be introduced
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3.2 Learning Outcomes


Describe what happens to a current carrying conductor in a
magnetic field
Draw the pattern of the combined magnetic field due to a current
carrying conductor in a magnetic field
Describe how a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field
experiences a force
Explain the factors that affect the magnitude of the force on a
current carrying conductor in a magnetic field
Describe how a current carrying coil in a magnetic field experiences
a turning force
Describe how a direct current motor works
State factors that affect the speed of rotation of an electric motor
Note :
1) Flemings left hand rule may be introduced
2) The working principle of a moving coil ammeter
may also be discussed
3) Comparison to an alternating current motor may
also be discussed
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3.2 The Force on a current-carrying conductor in a


magnetic field
(Daya saling tindakan antara Konduktor membawa arus
dengan Medan Magnet)

A student is able to :
1. Describe how a current carrying conductor
in a magnetic field experience the force.
2. Explain the factors that affect the
magnitude of the force on a current
carrying conductor in a magnetic field
3. Describe how a direct current motor works

Magnetic Force
1.
2.

Two magnadur magnet - produce a uniform,


parallel magnetic field.
The current carrying vertical wire produce a
circular magnetic field around itself.

Figure:Magnetic field around a wire and between two magnadur magnets.

Force produced by the combined magnetic field


produce Catapult force ( Medan lastik)

The Catapult force acts perpendicular to both


the current and the magnetic field

Fleming's left hand rule

Fleming's left hand rule (for


electric motors) shows the direction of the
thrust on a conductor carrying a current in a
magnetic field.
The left hand is held with the thumb,
index finger and middle finger mutually at
right angles.

Fleming's left hand rule

The First finger represents


the direction of the Field.
The Second finger
represents the direction of
the Current (in the
classical direction, from
positive to negative).
The Thumb represents
the direction of the Thrust
or resultant Motion.

Do experiment 3.3 in the Practical Book

Turning force on a current-carrying


coil in a magnetic field

Ammeter

Turning force on a current-carrying


coil in a magnetic field

Direct Current Motor

Factor that affect the speed of rotation


of an electric motor
1.
2.
3.

Increasing the current


Using a stronger magnet
Increasing the number of
turns on the coil

3.3 Learning Outcomes


Describe electromagnetic induction
Indicate the direction of the induced
current in a straight wire and solenoid
Explain factors that affect the magnitude
of the induced current
Describe applications of electromagnetic
induction
Compare direct current and alternating
current
Note :
1) Faradays Law and Lenzs Law may be introduced
2) Flemings right hand rule may be introduced
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Magnetic Flux
1. Current is produced in a
conductor
when it is moving
through a magnetic field
2. Generating current in a
conductor is by placing the
conductor in a changing
magnetic field
3. The process of generating
current in these ways is called
induction (Aruhan)
4. No physical contact between
the conductor and the magnet.

A Bar Magnet

Describe electromagnetic induction


1. The production of an electromotive force
(e.m.f) either by motion of a conductor
through a magnetic field in such a manner
as to cut across the magnetic flux or by a
change in the magnetic flux that threads a
conductor
2. Electromagnetic induction is the
production of voltage across a conductor
situated in a changing magnetic field or a
conductor moving through a stationary
magnetic field.

A Current Generator

Faradays Law
1. When Michael Faraday made his discovery of
electromagnetic induction in 1831, he hypothesized that
a changing magnetic field is necessary to induce a
current in a nearby circuit. To test his hypothesis he
made a coil by wrapping a paper cylinder with wire. He
connected the coil to a galvanometer, and then moved a
magnet back and forth inside the cylinder.
2. When you move the magnet back and forth, notice that
the galvanometer needle moves, indicating that a current
is induced in the coil. Notice also that the needle
immediately returns to zero when the magnet is not
moving. Faraday confirmed that a moving magnetic field
is necessary in order for electromagnetic induction to
occur

Michael Faraday
(1791-1867)
The First Generator

Michael Faraday
(1791-1867)

Changing Flux and Faraday's Law

Faraday's Law Example

AC current in bottom coil causes changing B-field along iron core

Flux through coil changes because bar magnet is moved up and down.

Faradays Law
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. is
directly proportional to the rate of change
of magnetic flux experienced by the
conductor.
(Hukum Faraday mengatakan bahawa
magnitud d.g.e. yang teraruh dalam
konduktor adalah berkadar secara
langsung dengan kadar perubahan fluks
magnet melalui konduktor itu.

How Current can produced:When conductor


(Wire) cut the
magnetic flux
magnetic flux
experienced will
occurs
Produces an induced
e.m.f. in the
conductor (wire)
Produces an induced
current in the
conductor (wire)

Refer Figure 3.3.1 and


3.3.2.
Home work:Find the way to increase
magnitude of e.m.f in a
wire and in the coil?

Electromagnetic
induction occurs

Lenzs Law
Lenzs law states that the direction of the
induced e.m.f. is such that its magnetic
effect always oppose the change
producing.
( Hukum Lenz mengatakan bahawa arus
aruhan sentiasa mengalir pada arah yang
menentang perubahan yang
menghasilkannya)

Flemings right-hand rule is applied


when determining the direction of
the induced current

Lenz's Law

Figure 1

Figure 2

Refer this web site to know about


applications and comparison Direct current
and Alternating Current
Describe applications of electromagnetic
induction ( Type Electromagnetic Induction at
search section using www.yahoo.com engine)
Compare direct current and alternating current
( Type Direct and Alternating current at search
section using www.yahoo.com engine)

3.4 Learning Outcomes


Describe the structure and the operating of a simple
transformer
Compare and contrast a step-up transformer and stepdown transformer
State that V
Nfor an ideal
p

Vs

Ns

transformer
State that VPIP = VSIS for an ideal transformer
Describe the energy losses in a transformer
Describe ways to improve the efficiency of a transformer
Solve problems involving transformers
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Describe the structure and the


operating of a simple transformer

Three-phase pole-mounted

Transformer Station

step-down transformer

Steps down from 240,000 V to 8000 V

Operating principle of
a simple transformer
In electric power
distribution systems it
is important to convert
a small AC voltage to a
larger one or vice
versa.
The device used for
these conversions is
the transformer.
Transformers are found
in many devices such
as televisions and
mobile phone chargers.

Operating principle of a transformer


A transformer consists of two coils of wire
known as the primary and secondary coils.
The two coils are usually wound round
separately on a soft iron core(teras besi
berlamina)
The purpose of the common iron core is to
provide a magnetic field linkage (melalui)in
the secondry coil
When AC current flows in the primary coil, an
induced magnetic field is produced in the soft
iron core
This means that the magnetic flux
linkage(melalui) in the secondary coil is
constantly changing (berubah-ubah)
A voltage is generated across the secondary
coil only when there is a change in the flux
linkage through the secondry coil.
Akhirnya menghasilkan satu arus ulang alik
(AC) dalam gegelung sekunder.

Step up and step-down


transformers
Step-up
transformer
Np<Ns

Vs = Ns
Vp
Np
Step- down
transformer
Np>Ns

In an ideal
transformer

Power Transmission and


Transformers

Operating principle of the


transformer
a) When an a.c flows in the primary coil, a
magnetic flux produced is constantly
changing.
b) The changing magnetic flux through the
secondary coil induces an e.m.f. in the
secondary coil due to electromagnetic
induction. (Electromagnetic induction
is the production of voltage )

An ideal transformer
If Vp = input voltage
Np= number of turns in the primary coil
Ns = number of turns in the secondary coil
Than output voltage Vs is given
Vs = Ns
Vp
Np

Compare and contrast between a step-up


transformer and a step-down transformer
Step-up
1.

Output Voltage > input voltage


Vs > Vp

Step-down
1. Output Voltage < input voltage
Vs < Vp

2. Number of turns
Ns > Np

2. Number of turns
Ns < Np

3. Output current < input current


Is < Ip

3. Output current > input current


Is > Ip

The Efficiency of a transformer


For an ideal transformer, its efficiency is
100% and
Output power = Input power
IsVs = IpVp
Where Ip is primary current
Is is Secondary current
However, practical transformers are not
100% efficient. The output power is less
than the input power.

Reason why the efficiency of a


transformer is less than 100%
a) Energy is dissipated as thermal energy
in the primary and secondary coils.
b) Energy is dissipated as thermal energy
in the soft iron core.
c) Energy loss when the magnetic flux
changes.
d) Leakage of the magnetic flux. Not all the
magnetic flux produced by the primary
coil goes through the secondary coil.

To Increase the efficiency of a


Transformers
a) Thick cooper wires are used for the
primary and secondary coils.
b) The soft iron core is laminated to reduce
eddy current (arus pusar).

Problem solving question


1.

a) Name the type of transformer shown in the figure.Give a reason for your answer.
b) Explain how an e.m.f is induced in the secondary coil.
c) Calculate the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary coil to that in the
primary coil.
d) If the current in the primary coil is 0.20 A, what is the current in the secondary
coil?

Solution
a) Step down transformer
Output voltage (12V) < Input voltage (240)

b) A.c in primary coil produces constantly changing


magnetic flux. Changing magnetic flux through
secondary coil induces e.m.f in it.
c) Ns = 12
Np = 240
= 0.05 (Answer)
d) IsVs = IpVp
Is = (0.20)(240)
12
= 4.0 A (Answer)

Problem solving question


Figure 7 shows the transmission of electrical power from the power station to the
home. 250 kW of electrical power is generated at 20 kV in the power station and
transmitted at 300 kV in the cables.

a) i) State the purpose of transformer A.


ii) If the transformer A is 100% efficient, calculate the ratio
Number of turns in the secondary coil
Number of turns in the primary coil
b) What is the current in the cables.

Solution
a.

i) To step up the voltage from 20kV to 300kV


ii)

Ns = 300
Np
20
= 15 (Answer)
b) Power = Voltage x Current
P
= VI
250kW = VsIs
Is = 250 000
300 000
Is = 0.83 A (Answer)

3.5 Learning Outcomes

List sources of energy used to generate electricity


Describe the various ways of generating electricity
Describe the transmission of electricity
Describe the energy loss in electricity transmission
cables and deduce the advantage of high voltage
transmission
State the importance of the National Grid Network
Solve problems involving electricity transmission
Explain the importance of renewable energy
Explain the effects on the environment caused by the
use of various sources to generate electricity

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