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Water reqt.

for ash disposal of 100 MW


(000 cubic meter / yr)
power plant.

WATER & LAND USAGE FOR ASH DISPOSAL


Conventional Vs HCSD (High concentration slurry disposal)

FEATURES OF HCSD SYSTEM


500

- Reduction in water consumption by 60%.


- Reduction in land requirement by 79%
- Reduction in power consumption by 50%

197

.
Conventional

- Environment friendly ash disposal and


coagulated ash doesnt fly under wind.
- Chances of accidents in ash pond
are completely nullified due to low
quantity of water in ash pond

HCSD

Land reqt. for ash disposal of 100 MW


power plant for 25 years
(acre)
150

32
Adoption of HCSD in KORBA
region power plants alone may result in
an annual availability 21 MCM of water
which may be utilized to generate
700-900 MW electricity.
.

ASSUMPTIONS:
1.
Ash Content
2.
Water to Ash ( Conventional)
3.
Water to Ash ( HCSD)
4.
Re-circulation ( Conventional)

=
=
=
=

42 %
80 to 20 %
40 to 60 %
60 %

HASDEO BANGO DAM an OVERVIEW


(MCM = million cubic
meter)

Elevation level (mtrs)

363.08

downstream

359.66

In the shown line diagram:

Live capacity of dam = 3046 MCM


345.66

Reserve Stock for emergency = 336.35 MCM .


329.79
316.00

329.79 m is the design driving head to drive the turbine.


Reserve Stock

penstock

310.00
292.60

Dead stock

turbine

LBC = 70
Cumecs

river
Reduced level
in meters
Sill level of irrigation sluice
310.00
Draw down level of dam
329.79
Crest level (radial gate)
345.66
Full reservoir level
359.66
Maximum water level
363.08
Particulars

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Gross capacity
in MCM
34.65
370.00
1468.00
3416.00
4002.65

Hasdeo Barrage
RBC = 117 Cumecs
Parsahi lift irrigation area of flow
7 Cumecs (=220 MCM) from RBC
yet to be developed.

BRIEF CALCULATION OF WATER CONSUMPTION:

100 MW requires approx. 7 lacs MTPA coal annually = 2.94 lac MT ash annually
(Considering 42% ash in coal)
Water through HCSD to handle above quantity of ash:
(67/100) X 294000= 197000
Approx.=197000 cum/yr
(40 ton water required to dispose 60 ton ash)
Water through Conventional system to handle above quantity of ash:
(170/100) X 294000= 500000 cum/yr
With 60% re-circulation.
(80 ton water required to dispose 20 ton
And 34 ton water required for above with 60% re-circulation)

BHARAT ALUMINIUM COMPANY LIMITED, KORBA


(A UNIT OF VEDANTA GROUP)
ASH POND AREA CALCULATION FOR 2x600MW POWER PLANT
Coal Requirement with 100% PLF
600x24x0.742 =

10685

MT/day

Ash generation
Considering 42% ash content,
Total ash generation per day (10685*0.42)=

4488

MT/day

Assuming fly ash 80% of total ash generation,


The Fly ash quantity (4488*0.8)=

3590

MT/day

Assuming bottom ash 20% of total ash generation,


The Fly ash quantity (4488*0.2)=

898

MT/day

Assuming the Plant life of 25 years,


Total ash generation for (25*365*4488)=
Say

40949496 MT
41
Million MT

Considering ash density 0.8MT/cum, (Conventional) the ash volume =

51

Million Cum

Considering ash density 1.0MT/cum, (HCSD) the ash volume =

41

Million Cum

Ash Pond area for conventional method of disposal


Assuming 15m height,
Area required (51000000/15)=
Dyke construction area required =
Approach area required=
Total area required=
Say
Say

3412458
149383
75491
3637332
899
364

Sqm
Sqm
Sqm
Sqm
Acres
Hectares

511869
237135
34168
783622
194
78
50%

Sqm
Sqm
Sqm
Sqm
Acres
Hectares

Ash Pond area for High Concentration slurry Disposal method


Assuming 80m height, considering a pond width of minimum 400m
Area required (41000000/80)=
Dyke construction area required =
Approach area required=
Total area required=
Reduction in corridor required for piping

Say
Say
By

SUMMARY-ASH POND LAND REQUIRED


PLANT
CAPACITY
1x600MW
2x600MW

PLANT
ASH GENERATION
LIFE
VOLUME
25 years
51x106 Cum
25 years
102x106 Cum

CONVENTIONAL
HEIGHT AREA
15
899 Acres
15
1798 Acres

HCSD
HEIGHT
AREA
25
194 Acres
25
388 Acres

Types of Ash Disposal Systems used in India & Abroad


Conventional Lean Slurry Disposal method using an effective ash to water ratio of 100:170 after
considering 60% recirculation of water. (Normal pumping is at 100: 400)
Mechanical Disposal method to form Ash mounds using an ash to water ratio of 100:35 (no
recirculation of water is required)
High Concentration Slurry Disposal method using an ash to water ratio of 100:67 (no
recirculation of water is required)

Conventional Lean Slurry Disposal method

High quality water retaining structure is required for the pond

Accidents like ash pond breakages may occur with disastrous consequences

Overall height of ash pond is limited

Holding capacity per unit area is very low

Water from the pond leaches into the ground water system

Expensive water recycling & treatment system is required

Slurry requires high velocity to prevent settlement, hence high wear & tear of the pipes

Initial cost is lower but cost of water consumption and land required is very high per
tonnage. Also the power consumption cost is very high.

Mechanical Disposal method to form Ash Mounds

Very few plants have such system. 2-3 outside India and one at NTPC - Dadri

Power consumption is reasonable comparable to HCSD

Requires long belt conveyor system to transfer ash, stackers, sprinkling, dozers,
compacting equipments

Extensive man power requirement for ash mound management.

Requires expensive chemicals to consolidate the ash

Ash has to be very timely consolidated to avoid fly off by strong winds creating massive
air pollution

During monsoon, water collection system is required at periphery thru drains to prevent
out flow of contaminated ash

Height of ash pond can be upto 50 60 M which gives good storage

Extensive maintenance required due to mechanical equipments

Initial cost is very high

Not a perfect system due to its complication & heavy maintenance

High Concentration Slurry Disposal method

This is the latest technology developed over last 15 20 years. With its perfection new
generation power plants can enjoy its benefits. Also existing plants can be converted to
this new concept

Water consumption is very low. No water retaining structure is required for the pond,
except for a small toe dyke for rain water collection

No ground water contamination as literally no water is released from the slurry.

No water recycling system is required

Power consumption is comparable to Dry ash mound type disposal & much lower than
the conventional system

Due to cementing properties of fly ash, the ash density at ash pond is much higher by 20
30%, Hence that much extra ash can be stored per unit area

Ash pond height can be above 100Mtrs giving a massive storage per unit area

High Concentration Slurry Disposal method

Pipe sizes are lesser by half of the conventional slurry pipes

Slurry is highly viscous & soft, hence less abrasive. It conveys at 60 65% of velocity of
conventional system. Hence wear is very low and pipe line rarely requires any
replacement

Initial cost is slightly higher by 15 20% which will be recovered in few months on
account of lower power consumption. Additionally cost of water consumption and land
required is very low per tonnage

Maintenance cost is low