Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 62

Basic Electronics

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Eloctronics in Industry

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Eloctronics in Industry

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Wire
Used as a
conductor;
usually copper,
Sometimes
aluminum.

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Resistors
Slows down or resists the flow of
electrons.

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Fixed Resistors
Can only handle a
certain amount of
current.
Typically made from
a resistance wire,
which is wound
around a ceramic
core and covered
with some insulating
material.

Carbon Film

Metal Oxide

Metal Film

Wirewound Resistor
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Carbon Resistor
Carbon
Composition
Resistor Made of
carbon dust or
graphite paste, low
wattage values.
They are used in circuits where cost is a criterion
rather than the performance.

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Film Resistor
Film or Cermet
Resistor Made from
conductive metal oxide
paste, very low
Carbon film resistors are
wattage values.
used in applications where
Either thick-film
the operating voltage and
resistors or thin-film temperature is high like laser
resistors
and radar.
Metal Film Resistors are prefixed with a MFR
notation (eg, MFR100k) and a CF for Carbon
Film types.
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Thin Film Resistors


Thin film resistors are manufactured by depositing a
resistive layer(Nichrome) on an insulating base like
ceramic. The thickness of the resistive film is equal
to or smaller than 0.1 micro meters.

Thick Film Resistors


In thick film resistors, the thickness of resistive film is
nearly 100 micro meters. Thick film resistors can be
used in applications where less cost is important,
high power is handles and high stability is important.
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Wirewound Resistor
Wire-wound
Resistor Metallic
bodies for heatsink
mounting, very high
wattage ratings
Wire wound resistors are used in circuit breakers,
transducers, temperature sensors and current
sensors etc.
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

10

SMD Resistors
Surface Mount Devices
(SMD): Because of small size
they are suitable for circuit
boards. They have very little
inductance and capacitance
and can perform well at radio
frequencies.

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

11

The Standard Resistor Colour Code Chart

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

12

The Standard Resistor


E12 Series at 10% Tolerance Resistors
values in s
1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.2, 2.7, 3.3, 3.9, 4.7, 5.6,
6.8, 8.2

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

13

Variable resistors
Also known as
rheostats, or
potentiometers
Allow you to regulate
the amount of current
flowing through the
circuit
Resistors are nonpolarized, which means
there are no positive or
negative ends
Trimpot

1. Potentiometer, 2. Rheostat, 3. Preset


ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

14

Variable resistors

Horizontal Preset

Potentiometer
5K6 LIN 5.6 kilo ohm with a
linear track.
2M LOG 2 Mega ohm with a
logarithmic track.

Trimpot
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Rheostat
15

Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)


Light dependent resistors are made of
semiconductors with high resistance. In
absence of light or in dark, the resistance of
light dependent resistors is very high usually
in the range of Mega Ohms (M). When
light is incident on the surface of light
dependent resistors, photons fall on the
semiconductor material and the valence
electrons of the semiconductor are excited to
conduction band. For the valence electrons
to jump to conduction band there should be
enough energy in the photons. Therefore the
light incident should exceed a certain
frequency and the number of free electrons
depends on frequency of light. The free
electrons will conduct current and hence
lowers the resistance.
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

16

Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)


Based on the semiconductor material used, Light dependent resistors are divided
into intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic Light dependent resistors use undoped or
pure semiconductors like silicon. There should be enough energy in the photons
to excite the entire band gap. Therefore intrinsic light dependent resistors are
used for shorter wavelength or higher frequency photons.
On the other hand, Extrinsic Light dependent resistors use semiconductor
materials with impurities in them. These impurities are called dopants and
generally boron or phosphorous are used. These impurities create an
intermediate energy band which is closer to the conduction band. Hence the
energy required to excite these electrons is less. Lower energy photons i.e.
longer wavelength or lesser frequency like Infrared are suitable for extrinsic light
dependent resistors.

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

17

Network Resistors
Network resistors are single package
resistors with two or more resistors. They
generally come in Single in-line package
or Dual in-line package.
Resistor networks are used to reduce
the board space, improve reliability,
reduce solder connections and
improve tolerance matching.
Generally resistor networks are used
in resistor ladders, bus terminators
and small computer system interface
terminators.

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

18

Varistor
Varistor is portmanteau of variable resistor. It is
an electronic component with non-linear
current voltage characteristics like diode. The
resistance in varistor is changed according to
the change in voltage across it. This makes it a
voltage sensitive device hence it is also called
Voltage Dependent Resistor. Generally
varistors are made from semiconductor
materials.
The resistance of varistor is very high under normal operating conditions.
But the resistance decreases dramatically when the voltage increases
beyond the rated value of varistor.
Metal oxide Varistors are most common type of varistors. Grains of Zinc
oxide are used because it provides P-N diode characteristics. Hence it is
used to protect electronic and electrical circuits from over voltage surges.
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

19

Capacitors

Basic job is to store electron


current until needed by the
circuit
Charge and discharge
electrons as required by the
circuit
Made up of two or more plates
(conductors), each separated
by a dielectric (insulator)
Ceramic capacitors and mica
capacitors are non-polarized
Electrolytic capacitors are
polarized, meaning one lead is
markings 103 in pico-farads
positive and the other is
=10,000 pF or 10nF.
negative, as marked

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

20

Capacitors

Film Capacitor

Tantalum

Ceramic

Metalised Polyester Capacitor

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

Al Electrolytic

21

A Silicon Atom Structure

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

22

Periodic Table of Semiconductors


Elements Group 13

Elements Group 14

Elements Group 15

3-Electrons in Outer Shell


(Positively Charged)

4-Electrons in Outer Shell


(Neutrally Charged)

5-Electrons in Outer Shell


(Negatively Charged)

(5)

(6)
Boron ( B )

(13)

Carbon ( C )

(14)
Aluminium ( Al )

(31)

(15)
Silicon ( Si )

(32)
Gallium ( Ga )

Phosphorus ( P )

(33)
Germanium ( Ge )

Arsenic ( As )

(51)
Antimony ( Sb )

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

23

Antimony Atom and Doping

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

24

Boron Atom and Doping

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

25

The PN junction

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

26

Junction Diode Symbol and


Static I-V Characteristics

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

27

Zero Biased PN Junction Diode

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

28

Forward Bias

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

29

Reverse Bias

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

30

Diodes
A solid state device
designed to permit the flow
of electrons in one
direction and block the flow
in the opposite direction
Made from germanium or
silicon
A zener diode is used to
regulate voltage
A light emitting diode
(LED) is a solid state
component that emits a
tiny bit of light when
current passes through it
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

31

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

32

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

33

Diodes
The power semiconductor diode, known simply as the Power Diode,
has a much larger PN junction area compared to its smaller signal
diode cousin, resulting in a high forward current capability of up to
several hundred amps (KA) and a reverse blocking voltage of up to
several thousand volts (KV).
Since the power diode has a large PN junction, it is not suitable for
high frequency applications above 1MHz, but special and expensive
high frequency, high current diodes are available. For high frequency
rectifier applications Schottky Diodes are generally used because of
their short reverse recovery time and low voltage drop in their forward
bias condition.

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

34

Half Wave Rectifier Circuit

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

35

Half-wave Rectifier with


Smoothing Capacitor

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

36

Full Wave Rectifier Circuit

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

37

The Diode Bridge Rectifier

2W10 Bridge Rectifier


ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

38

Full-wave Rectifier with


Smoothing Capacitor

LM78xx, LM79xx
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

39

Positive Clipping Circuits

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

40

Negative Clipping Circuits

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

41

Clipping of Both Half Cycles

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

42

Other Applications of Diodes

The Freewheel diode is used to protect


solid state switches such as power
transistors and MOSFETs from damage
by reverse battery protection as well as
protection from highly inductive loads
such as relay coils or motors

CPU Data Line Protection

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

43

Zener Diode I-V Characteristics

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

44

Zener Diode Regulator

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

45

Signal Diodes

Generally, the PN junction of a small Signal Diode is encapsulated in


glass to protect the PN junction, and usually have a red or black band
at one end of their body to help identify which end is the cathode
terminal. The most widely used of all the glass encapsulated signal
diodes is the very common 1N4148 and its equivalent 1N914 signal
diode.
1. Germanium Signal Diodes These have a low reverse resistance
value giving a lower forward volt drop across the junction, typically
only about 0.2-0.3v, but have a higher forward resistance value
because of their small junction area.
2. Silicon Signal Diodes These have a very high value of reverse
resistance and give a forward volt drop of about 0.6-0.7v across the
junction. They have fairly low values of forward resistance giving them
high peak values of forward current and reverse voltage.
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

46

Light Emitting Diode

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

47

LED Circuits

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

48

Multi Coloured LEDs

LED
Selected
LED 1
LED 2
Colour

Terminal A
+

ON
OFF

OFF
ON

AC
ON
ON

Output
Red
Colour

Orange Yellow Green

LED 1
0
Current

5mA

9.5mA 15mA

LED 2
10mA
Current

6.5mA

3.5mA 0

A Bicolour LED
A Multi or Tricoloured LED

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

49

Seven Segment LED Display

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

50

Seven Segment LED Display


(Common Cathode)

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

51

Seven Segment LED Display


(Common Cathode)

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

52

Photo-diode and Phototransistor Opto-couplers

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

53

Transistors
Solid-state device used for
switching and/or amplifying the
flow of electrons in a circuit
Two basic types of transistors
are switching and amplifying
Switching transistors are used in
circuits, which are either on or
off
Amplifying transistors amply an
electrical signal are used in
places where the amount of
signal is important
A phototransistor is a solid state
component where the amount of
light which passes through a
lens controls the amount of
current flow
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

54

Cold Test of BJT

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

55

Input Characteristics of BJT

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

56

Switches
A device which
closes to complete
an electrical circuit
allowing electrons
to flow through the
circuit, or which
opens or breaks a
circuit, stopping the
flow
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

http://www.bedsiworld.com/wiki1-Switch

57

Motors
A device used to
convert electrical
energy into
mechanical energy.
The flow of electrons
passing through a
motor can be used to
produce motion by
turning gears and
other mechanical
devices
ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

58

Stepper Motor

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

59

Servo Motor

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

60

Integrated Circuits
Three common electronic components, which make up an
integrated circuit, are resistors, transistors and capacitors.
The main advantage of ICs is that so much electronic circuitry
can be in such a small package.

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

61

IC Packages
Dual Row
DIP=Dual In-line Package
SOIC=Small Out-line Integrated Circuit
MSOP=Mini Small Out-line Package
SSOP=Shrink Small Out-line Package
TSOP=Thin Small Out-line Package
Quad Row
QFP=Quad Flat Package
QFN=quad Flat No-leads
CSP=Chip Scale Package
WLP=Wafer Level Package
PLCC=Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier

ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University

62