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# CHAPTER

Determination of
Interest Rates

## 2003 South-Western/Thomson Learning

Chapter Objectives
Explain Loanable Funds Theory of Interest
Rate Determination
Identify Major Factors Affecting the Level of
Interest Rates
Explain How to Forecast Interest Rates

## Interest rate changes affect the values of all securities

Investment spending
Interest sensitive consumer spending such as housing
Security prices vary inversely with interest rates
Varying interest rates impact retirement funds and retirement
income

institutions

## Managers of financial institutions closely monitor rates

Interest rate risk is a major risk impacting financial
institutions

## Loanable Funds Theory of Interest Rate

Determination
Theory of how the general level of interest
rates are determined
Explains how economic and other factors
influence interest rate changes
Interest rates determined by demand and
supply for loanable funds

## Loanable Funds Theory, cont.

Demand = borrowers, issuers of securities,
deficit spending unit
Supply = lenders, financial investors, buyers
of securities, surplus spending unit
Assume economy divided into sectors
Slope of demand/supply curves related to
elasticity or sensitivity of interest rates

## Sectors of the Economy

Household Sector--Usually a net supplier of
loanable funds
Business SectorUsually a net demander in
growth periods
Government Sectors

StatesBorrow

## for capital projects

FederalBorrow for capital projects and deficit
spending

1980s

## Demand for Loanable Funds

Sum of sector demand (quantity) at varying
levels of interest rates
Sector cash receipts in period less than outlays
= borrower
Quantity demanded inversely related to
interest rates
Variables other than interest rate changes
cause shift in demand curve

Interest
Rate

Households

## demand loanable funds to finance

housing, automobiles, household items
These purchases result in installment debt.
Installment debt increases with the level of income
There is an inverse relationship between the interest
rate and the quantity of loanable funds demanded

## demand loanable funds to invest in

assets
Quantity of funds demanded depends on how
many projects to be implemented

## choose projects by calculating the projects

Net Present Value
Select all projects with +NPVs

## Loanable Funds Theory

Net Present Value is calculated as follows:
n

NPV = INV +

t=1

CFt
(1 + k)t

Projects

## with a positive NPV are accepted because

the present value of their benefits outweighs their
costs
If interest rates decrease, more projects will have a
positive NPV

## will need a greater amount of financing

Businesses will demand more loanable funds

There

## is an inverse relationship between interest rates

and the quantity of loanable funds demanded
The curve can shift in response to events that affect
Example:

## Economic conditions become more favorable

Expected cash flows will increase > more positive NPV
projects > increased demand for loanable funds

When

## planned expenditures exceed revenues from

taxes, the government demands loanable funds
Municipal (state and local) governments issue
municipal bonds
Federal government and its agencies issue
Treasury securities and federal agency securities.

## Loanable Funds Theory

Government Demand for Loanable Funds
Federal

## government expenditure and tax policies

are independent of interest rates
Government demand for funds is interest-inelastic
Interest
Rate

D
Quantity of Loanable Funds

A foreign

## countrys demand for U.S. funds is

influenced by the differential between its interest
rates and U.S. rates
The quantity of U.S. loanable funds demanded by
foreign investors will be inversely related to U.S.
interest rates

The

## aggregate demand for loanable funds is the

sum of the quantities demanded by the separate
sectors
The aggregate demand for loanable funds is
inversely related to interest rates

## Sector Supply of Loanable Funds

Households are major suppliers of loanable
funds
Businesses and governments may invest (loan)
funds temporarily
Foreign sector a net supplier of funds in last
twenty years
Federal Reserves monetary policy impacts
supply of loanable funds

## Supply of Loanable Funds

Sum of sector supply (quantity) at varying
levels of interest rates
Sector cash receipts in period greater than
outlayslender
Quantity supplied directly related to interest
rates
Variables other than interest rate changes
causes a shift in the supply curve

Interest
Rate

## Equilibrium Interest Rate

Aggregate

Demand
DA = Dh + Db + Dg + Dm + Df

Aggregate

Supply
SA = Sh + Sb + Sg + Sm + Sf
In equilibrium, DA = SA

Graphic Presentation
Interest
Rates

Supply of
Loanable Funds

Demand for
Loanable Funds

## Loanable Funds Theory

Graphic Presentation
When

## a disequilibrium situation exists, market

forces should cause an adjustment in interest
rates until equilibrium is achieved
Example:

## interest rate above equilibrium

Surplus of loanable funds
Rate falls
Quantity supplied reduced, quantity demanded
increases until equilibrium

## General Equilibrium Interest Rate

Means of explaining how economic factors
affect interest rate levels
Interest rate level where quantity of aggregate
loanable funds demanded = supply
Surplus and shortage conditions

Surplus-

## Quantity demanded < quantity supplied

followed by market interest rate decreases
ShortageGovernment interest rate ceilings below
market interest rates

## Interest Rate Changes

+ Directly related to level of economic activity
or growth rate of economic activity
+ Directly related to expected inflation
Inversely related to rates of money supply
changes

Rates

Economic Growth
Expected

## impact is an outward shift in the demand

schedule without obvious shift in supply
New technological applications with +NPVs
Result is an increase in the equilibrium interest
rate

## Economic Forces That Affect Interest

Rates: The Fisher Effect
Lenders want to be compensated for expected
loss of purchasing power (inflation) when they
lend
Nominal Interest Rates = Sum of real rate plus
expected rate of inflation, i n = E(I ) + i r
Expected Real Rate (ex ante) = expected
increase in purchasing power in period
Realized Real Rate (ex post) = nominal rates
less actual rate of inflation in period

Rates

Inflation
The

Fisher Effect

Nominal

## Interest Rates = Sum of Real Rate plus

Expected Rate of Inflation

in = ir + E(I)

## Figure 2.12 here

20
Annualized
Real
Interest Rate
15

Annualized
Inflation
Annualized
T-Bill
Rate

10

-5
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Year

Rates

Inflation
If

Households

## may reduce their savings to make purchases

before prices rise
Supply shifts to the left, raising the equilibrium rate
Also, households and businesses may borrow more to
purchase goods before prices increase
Demand shifts outward, raising the equilibrium rate

Rates

Money Supply
When

## the Fed increases the money supply, it

increases supply of loanable funds
Places downward pressure on interest rates

Rates

Increase

## in deficit increases the quantity of

loanable funds demanded
Demand schedule shifts outward, raising rates
Government is willing to pay whatever is
necessary to borrow funds, crowding out the
private sector

Rates

Foreign Flows
In

## recent years there has been massive flows

between countries
Driven by large institutional investors seeking
high returns
They invest where interest rates are high and
currencies are not expected to weaken
These flows affect the supply of funds available in
each country
Investors seek the highest real after-tax, exchange
rate adjusted rate of return around the world

## Forecasting Interest Rates

Attempts to forecast demand/supply shifts
Forecast economic sector activity and impact
upon demand/supply of loanable funds
Forecast incremental effects on interest rates
Forecasting interest rates has been difficult

## Summary: Key Factors Impacting

Interest Rates Over Time

## Economic GrowthIncreased growth; increased

demand for funds; interest rates increase
Expected inflation--security prices fall; interest rates
increase
Government budgets

## Deficitincrease borrowing; security prices fall, interest

rates increase
Surplusdecreased borrowing; security prices increase;
interest rates decrease

## Increased foreign supply of loanable fundssecurity

prices increase; interest rates decrease