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DESCRIBING LEARNERS

Age

Learners Differences

Individual Variations
Neuro-Linguistic Programming
MI theory
What to do about individual
differences?

What is NLP?

We use a un number of
representational
systems to experience
the world. These systems
are described in the
acronym VAKOG which
stands for:

Visual

Auditory

Kinaesthetic:

Olfactory

Gustatory

MI (Multiple Intelligences)
Howard Gardner suggested that we do not possess a single intelligence but a
range of intelligences.

Musical/rhythmical
Verbal/linguistic
Visual/spatial
Bodily/Kinaesthetic
Logical/mathematical
Intrapersonal and Interpersonal

What to do about individual


differences?

When answering comprehension questions


about reading passages I prefer to work:

A) on my own.
B) with another student.
C) with a group of students.

Language levels

Beginner: Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions .


Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details

Elementary: Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate
relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment).
Can communicate in simple and routine tasks

Intermediate: Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar
matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.
Can deal with most situations likely to arise while traveling in an area where the language is spoken.
Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and
explanations for opinions and plans.

Upper intermediate:

Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics,
including technical discussions in his/her field of specialization.
Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a
topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.

Advanced: Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognize implicit meaning.
Can express ideas fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions.
Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes.
Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of
organizational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.

Methodology

Language, task and


topics
We have to adjust the level of students we are
teaching.
At begginer and elementary levels, we have to
use words and phrases that are as clear as
possible.
We dont have to confuse our Ss by offering
them too many different accents or varities of
English.
Taking care at lower levels to moderate the
speed we speak at and to make our intruction
especially clear.

Motivation

Extrinsic motivation: it is the result of any number of outside factors, for example the need to pass an exam, the
hope of financial reward or the possibility of future travel.
Intrinsic motivation: it comes from whithin the individual. Thus person might be motivated by the enjoyment of the
learning process itself or by desire to make themselves feel better.

External sources of
motivation
The goal: one of the strogest outside sources of
motivation, which students perceive themselves
to be learning for.
The society we live in: the attitude to language
learning and the English language in particular.
The people around us: the influence of people
who are close to students.
Curiosity: initial motivation, such us interest to
see what it is like.

The motivation angel

The motivation base

Affect

Achievement

Attitude

Activities

Agency