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SELAMAT

BELAJAR
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2005 Elsevier

BAB 1
PROPERTIES AND OVERVIEW OF IMMUNE
RESPONSES
Innate and adaptive immunity
Type of adaptive immune responses.
Cellular components of adaptive immune
system
Overview of immune responses to mocrobes
Summary

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Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Figure 1-1 Innate and adaptive immunity. The mechanisms of innate immunity provide the initial defense against infections.
Adaptive immune responses develop later and consist of activation of lymphocytes. The kinetics of the innate and adaptive immune
responses are approximations and may vary in different infections.
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INNATE IMMUNITY

CHARACTERISTICS

For structures shared by


Groups of relatated microbes
Limited, germline-encoded

None
Yes

ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY

SPECIFICITY

For antigen of microbes and


for non microbial antigens

DIVERSITY

Very large, receptors are


Produced By somatic
recombination of gene
segments

MEMORY

Yes

NONREACTIVITY TO SELF

Yes

COMPONENTS
Skin, mucosal epithelia,
Antimicrobial chemicals
Complement, others

Lymphocytes in epithelia,

CELLULAR AND
CHEMICAL BARRIER Antibodies secreted at

Epithelial surfaces.

BLOOD PROTEINS

Phagocytes (macrophage,
neutrophils), NK cells

CELLS

Antibodies

Lymphocytes
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Types of adaptive immunity.


Figure 1-2
In humoral immunity, B lymphocytes
secrete antibodies that prevent
infections by and eliminate
extracellular microbes. In cellmediated immunity, helper T
lymphocytes activate macrophages
to kill phagocytosed microbes or
cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)
directly destroy infected cells

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Active and passive immunity

Figure 1-3 Active and passive immunity.


Active immunity is conferred by a host response to a microbe or microbial antigen, whereas passive immunity is conferred by adoptive
transfer of antibodies or T lymphocytes specific for the microbe. Both forms of immunity provide resistance to infection and are specific
for microbial antigens, but only active immune responses generate immunologic memory.
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Cardinal Features of Adaptive Immune Responses

Figure 1-4 Specificity, memory, and contraction of adaptive immune responses. Antigens X and Y induce the production of different antibodies (specificity). The
secondary response to antigen X is more rapid and larger than the primary response (memory). Antibody levels decline with time after each immunization
(contraction, the process that maintains homeostasis). The same features are seen in cell-mediated immune responses.
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Cellular Components of the


Adaptive Immune System
Figure 1-5 Classes of lymphocytes. B lymphocytes recognize
soluble antigens and develop into antibody-secreting cells. Helper T
lymphocytes recognize antigens on the surfaces of APCs and secrete
cytokines, which stimulate different mechanisms of immunity and
inflammation. CTLs recognize antigens on infected cells and kill these
cells. Regulatory T cells suppress and prevent immune response, e.g.
to self antigens. NK cells use receptors with more limited diversity
than T or B cell antigen receptors to recognize and kill their targets,
such as infected cells.

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SERANGAN BAKTERI
Lapis I : Fisik Kimia Flora Normal
.
Lapis II : PMN Comp Macroph Ig.
..NK cell....
Lapis III:
B cell
T cell
Antibody (Ig)
Complement
Cytotoxic T Cell
Neutralization Macrophage
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Effector mechanism of
Adaptive Immunity.
Antibody

CTL

Ag Neutralization
ADCC

Complement Activation
Macrophage activation
(Opsonization)
Eradicating
Extracellular microbes

Cell Lysis

Eradicating
Intracellular microbes
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PENANGKAPAN ANTIGEN
Penangkapan(fagositosis) antigen oleh sel
dendritik (APC) yang ada di epitel,
diproses dan dibawa ke kelenjar limpe
untuk dipresentasikan ke sel T.
Mikroba intak atau antigen mikroba yang
mengalir juga masuk kel limpe akan
bertemu dengan sel B.

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Pengenalan antigen oleh limposit


Clonal selection hypothesis:
Antigen-specific clone telah ada sebelum
antigen datang
Tiap clone (B dan T) mempunyai reseptor
yang identik dan berbeda dengen reseptor
pada clone lain.
Diperkirakan lebih sepuluh juta spesifitas
yang berbeda pada B dan T.
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THE CLONAL SELECTION HYPOTHESIS


Figure 1-7 The clonal selection
hypothesis.
Each antigen (X or Y) selects a
preexisting clone of specific
lymphocytes and stimulates the
proliferation and differentiation of
that clone. The diagram shows only
B lymphocytes giving rise to
antibody-secreting effector cells,
but the same principle applies to T
lymphocytes.

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PHASE OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES

Figure 1-6 Phases of adaptive immune responses. Adaptive immune responses consist of distinct phases, the first three being the recognition
of antigen, the activation of lymphocytes, and the elimination of antigen (the effector phase). The response contracts (declines) as antigenstimulated lymphocytes die by apoptosis, restoring homeostasis, and the antigen-specific cells that survive are responsible for memory. The
duration of each phase may vary in different immune responses. The y-axis represents an arbitrary measure of the magnitude of the response.
These principles apply to humoral immunity (mediated by B lymphocytes) and cell-mediated immunity (mediated by T lymphocytes).
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Systemic circulation

Pulmonary circulation

Subclavicular vein

Valve

Lymphatic
vessel

Lymph node

Blood capillaries

Lymph capillaries

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LYMPH NODES
550 buah

Inguinal lymph node

1-10 mm in diameter

Afferent
L.n. vessels

.
...
Afferent
L.n. vessels

Efferent
L.n vessels

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Respo
Imun
Kuman atau antigen
yg masuk darah

Limpa
Sirkulasi darah

Extravasasi O2,Nutrisi,
sel-sel pertahanan
Cairan Extraseluler
meningkat

Kelenjar limpe

Respon
Imun

Masuk aliran limpe


Sirkulasi limpe

Kuman atau antigen


Jaringan
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RINGKASAN
Respon imun dini terhadap mikroba, respon
imunitas innate dipicu oleh struktur pada
mikroba.
Respon imun adaptif adalah spesifik untuk
mikroba yang berbeda dan nonmikrobial antigen
yang meningkat jika ada paparan ulang
(Immulogic memory).
Imunitas humoral yang dimediasi oleh sel B
dan antibodi yg dihasilkanya yang bekerja pada
mikroba ekstraseluler.

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RINGKASAN
Imunitas seluler (CMI) dimediasi oleh sel
T dengan produknya (sitokin) yang
bekerja pada mikroba intraseluler.
Imunitas bisa diperoleh melalui respon
terhadap antigen (Imunitas aktif) atau
melalui pemindahan antibodi atau sel T
dari individu yang sudah imun (imunitas
pasif).
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RINGKASAN
Sistem imun memiliki kemampuan yang sangat
penting untuk berfungsi normal seperti
- spesifik terhadap antigen yang berbeda,
- kemampuan mengenal variasi antigen yg luas
-,kemampuan untuk proliferasi cepat dari
limposit yg spesifik untuk antigen akibat
paparan antigen bersangkutan,
- mempertahankan homeostasis,
- kemampuan membedakan antigen self dan
asing
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RINGKASAN
Limposit satu2nya sel yang mampu secara
spesifik mengenal antigen sehingga
merupakan sel utama pada imunitas adaptif.
Subpopuasi limposit yaitu B dan T berbeda
pada reseptor antigen dan fungsinya.
Spesialis antigen-precenting cells (APC)
memperkenalkan antigen kepada limposit (T).
Eliminasi antigen sering perlu melibatkan
berbagai sel efektor (Keroyokan)

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RINGKASAN
Respon imun adaptif dimulai dengan
pengenalan antigen asing oleh limposit spesifik.
Limposit berespon(proliferasi dan differensiasi
menjadi sel effektor) untuk eliminasi antigen
dan pembentukan sel memori yang akan lebih
hebat responsnya jika antigen sama datang lagi.
Aktifasi limposit membutuhkan bukan hanya
antigen tetapi juga signal tambahan yang bisa
berasal dari mikroba atau respon imun innate
terhadap mikroba.

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RINGKASAN
CD4 T cells (helper) menolong makrofag untuk
eliminasi mikroba yang difagositosisnya dan
menolong sel B untuk produksi antibodi.
CD8 T cells (CTL) membunuh sel yang
mengandung mikroba jadi mengeliminasi
reservoar infeksi.
Antibodi menetralkan mikroba, membantu
makrofag mengeliminasi mikroba dan
mengaktifkan komplemen.

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