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LECTURE3:

UNIT PROCESSES & OPERATIONS


PROCESS DIAGRAMS

CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY (CH-206)


Dr. Vimal Kumar
Department of Chemical Engineering

UNIT PROCESSES AND INDUSTRY


Alkylation (Petroleum, Organic chemicals)

Amination by ammonolysis (Dye stuffs, Organic Chemicals, Synthetic fibers)

Amination by reduction (Dye stuffs, Organic Chemicals)

Ammonooxidation (Plastics, Synthetic fibers)

Calcination (Cement)

Cabonylation (Organic Chemicals)

Caboxylation (Organic Chemicals)

Combustion (Process Heating)

Condensation (Synthetic perfumes)

Cracking or Pyrolysis (Petroleum, Destruction distillation of coals)

Cynadation or Cynation (Organic Chemicals)

Cyclaization (Petroleum)

Dehydration (Organic and inorganic chemicals)

Dehydrogenation (Synthetic rubber)

Deazotization and Coupling (Dyestuffs)

Disproportionationa (Organic Chemicals)

Double decomposition (metathesis) (Inorganic Chemcials)

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UNIT PROCESSES AND INDUSTRY


Esterification (Oils and Fats, Soaps, Organic chemicals)

Halogenation (Organic Chemicals)

Hydration (Organic and inorganic chemicals)

Hydroformylation (Organic Chemicals)

Hydrogenation (Fats and Waxes, Coal hydrogenation, Petroleum)

Hydrolysis (Organic Chemicals)

Hydroxilation (Detergents)

Isomerization (Petroleum)

Nitration (Explosives, Dye stuffs, Organic Chemicals)

Oligomerization (Organic Chemicals)

Oxidation (Organic Chemicals)

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Polymerization: addition and condensation (Petroleum, Plastics,


Elastomers, Synthetic fibers)

Reduction (Polymers, Catalysts)

Sulfonation (Dye stuufs, surface active agents)

Thionation (Organic Chemicals)

UNIT PROCESSES AND INDUSTRY

Calcination (Cement)

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CaCO 3 heat CaO CO 2


limestone

lime

Cabonylation (Organic Chemicals)


CH 3OH CO

CH 3COOH

Methanol Carbon
Acetic acid
Monoxide
Combustion (Process heating)
CH 4
Methane

2O 2
Oxygent

2H 2 O
Wa ter

Cracking or Pyrolysis (Petroleum)


C-C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C C C-C-C

UNIT OPERATIONS/PROCESSES
Unit operations/processes

Functional role

Fluid
operations

a) Centrifugal pump
b) Reciprocating pump
c) Compressor
d) Expander

a) To pressurize liquids and


gases.
b) To depressurize gases

Solid
operations

a) Crusher
b) Grinder

a) To reduce the size of solids

Solid-fluid
separators

a) Cyclone separator
b) Centrifuge
c) Electrostatic precipitator
d) Classifier & Thickener
e) Liquid-liquid separator

a) To separate solid particles


from solid-liquid/gas mixtures

Heat

a) Shell & Tube heat


exchangers

a) To remove/add heat to
process streams so as to meet 5
desired conditions in other
units.

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Category

UNIT OPERATIONS/PROCESSES
Unit operations/processes

Functional role

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Category

Mass transfer a) Phase separation


units
b) Distillation
c) Absorption
d) Stripping
e) Adsorption
f) Extraction
g) Leaching
h) Crystallization
i) Membrane

a) To separate a feed into


products with different
compositions.
b) A third agent (heat or
compound) is usually used
to carry out separation.

Reactor units a) Continuous stirred tank


reactor (CSTR)
b) Plug flow reactor (PFR)
c) Packed bed reactors (PBR)
d) Slurry & Trickle bed reactors

a) To carry out reactions in


homogenous fluids
(gases/liquids).
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b) To carry out catalytic and
multi-phase reactions.

PROCESS DESIGN
Type of flow sheets

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Block

diagram
Simplified engineering flow sheets (stream quantities,
specifications, material and energy balance
instrumentations details, process auxiliary
requirements)
Other design flow sheets (piping, electrical and plant
layouts)

PROCESS DESIGN
Process steps
Reactant
Reaction

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preparation

Separation

of products
Purification of products

PROCESS DESIGN
Design steps

of all laboratory and process development


information
Flow sheet preparation
Selection of conventional design procedure for equipments
designated on the flow sheet for a particular unit operation
Reactor design (optimum)
Selection of control instrumentation for process monitoring
and analysis
Selection of size materials handling equipments pumps,
piping, conveyors, etc.
Design of all process auxiliaries
Plant layout
Itemizing of all designs for cost estimation

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Collection

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THANKS

UNIT OPERATIONS/PROCESSES
REACTOR UNITS

Functional role

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

- Well mixed reaction system set


alignment

Feed

Batch Reactor

- Homogenous liquid/gas phase


reaction
- Most easy configuration
- Temperature control through
Jacket
- Reactant instantaneously
reaches lowest concentration
- Most inexpensive to design and
operate
- Has a simple design, with the
requirement of very little
supporting equipments
Product - Ideal for small scale
experimental studies on reactor

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Unit operations/processes

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UNIT OPERATIONS/PROCESSES
REACTOR UNITS

Functional role

Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)

- Homogenous liquid/gas phase


reaction
- Reactant gradually reaches low
concentrations
- Good control over temperature
- Temperature control through
jacket

Reactants

Plug

Product

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Unit operations/processes

Packed Bed Reactor (PBR)


- Heterogeneous reaction
- Packing to act as catalyst
- Packing packed in tubes
- Shell fed with cooling/heating
fluid (optional) set alignment
-continuous sentence

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UNIT OPERATIONS/PROCESSES
REACTOR UNITS

Unit operations/processes

Functional role
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Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR)

- Multi-phase reaction
-If the reaction is not catalytic,
packing serves to enhance
interfacial area
- If the reaction is catalytic,
packing acts as a catalyst as well
- Complicated design
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UNIT OPERATIONS/PROCESSES
REACTOR UNITS

Unit operations/processes

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Fluidized Bed Reactor (FBR)

Functional role

- Provides highest mass, heat and


hence reaction rates for solid-fluid
reactions
- Very commonly deployed in
petroleum refineries (catalytic
cracking)
- Complicated accessories (shown)
and control system required
- The accessories are for catalyst
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re-generation and transport.

TYPES OF FLOW SHEETS


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Slides are developed from the following references:
Austin

G. T., "Shreves Chemical Process Industries",


Fifth edition, Tata McGraw Hill, NY.
Kent J.A., "Riegel's Handbook of Industrial
Chemistry, CBS Publishers.
Gopala Rao M. & Marshall Sittig, "Drydens Outlines of
Chemical Technology for the 21st Century", Affiliated
East West Press, New Delhi.
Mall I. D., "Petrochemical Process Technology",
Macmillan India Ltd., New Delhi.
NPTEL (online)

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THANKS