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LIFT SLAB AND

WAFFLE SLAB
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 5

WAFFLE SLAB CONSTRUCTION

WAFFLE SLAB
What are Waffle Slabs?
They are a reinforced concrete
footing and slab system
constructed on ground. They
consist of a perimeter footing
(edge beam) and a series of
narrow internal beams at one
metre nominal centres running
each way. The whole footing and

PLAN OF WAFFLE SLAB

WAFFLE SLAB

Waffle slabs tend to be deeper


than the equivalent ribbed slab.
Waffle slabs have a thin topping
slab and narrow ribs spanning in
both directions between column
heads or band beams. The
column heads or band beams

ALSO CALLED TWO-WAY

Two-way concrete joist


system ( waffle slab )
Waffle slab is used for long
spans( 6.0-14.4 m. )heavy
loads. Bays should be as
square as possible.

DETAIL OF WAFFLE SLAB

CONSTRUCTION
Waffles are generally limited to the interior of a slab,
leaving one or two of the forms out to create a solid
fill around the supports. The solid fills provide the
strength required for shear transfer to the supports

CONSTRUCTION
With larger loads and
longer spans, such as is
common in department
stores a heavier solid
SLAB BAND between the
supports accommodates
the overage of
reinforcement from the
individual waffle stems
in each direction

CONSTRUCTION

(a) Plan of tendon layout


(b) 3D view of tendons
FIGIRE 3-3 TENDON ARRANGMENT IN THE WAFFLE SLAB
CONSTRUCITON

DETAIL OF WAFFLE SLAB

WHERE SHOULD IT BE PUT?


A Place for Waffle Slabs
Waffle slabs are not
recommended on highly
reactive clay sites because
the requirements for good
drainage are almost
impossible to achieve.

Advantages:
Savings on weight and
materials
Long spans
Attractive soffit appearance if
exposed
Economical when reusable
formwork pans used
Vertical penetrations between

Disadvantages:
Depth of slab between the
ribs may control the fire
rating
Requires special or
proprietary formwork
Greater floor-to-floor height
Large vertical penetrations
are more difficult to handle.

USES

Ribbed and waffle slabs


provide a lighter and stiffer
slab than an equivalent flat
slab, reducing the extend of
foundations. They provide a
very good form where slab
vibration is an issue, such as
laboratories and hospitals.

LIFT SLAB CONSTRUCTION

DETAIL IN ATTACHING LIFT


SLAB

LIFT SLAB
Lift-slabs are work floors which are
pulled up per stage. Used mainly
for lift cores, stairwells, etc.
This lift-slab works with a tongue
system. In a previous phase a
groove must be provided for each
tongue of a min. 250 mm high and
150 mm wide.

HOW ARE THEY PLACED

Lift slab construction is a


method of constructing
concrete buildings by casting
the floor or roof slab on top of
the previous slab and then
raising (jacking) the slab up
with hydraulic jacks, so being
cheaper and faster as not

SECTION OF THE
METAL

SECTION OF THE
CONCRETE

PLAN OF THE LIFT


SLAB

SECTION

SPECIFICATIONS
width of lift-slab min.
1700mm - max. 2600mm
length of lift-slab min.
1700mm - max. 5000mm
bearing surface per lift-slab
girder max. 2500mm

SPECIFICATIONS
lift-slab girder can be
adjusted every 25 mm
lift-slab girder can be
adjusted at a max. 50 mm
less than the concrete
measurement. max. load 200
kg/m
play between wall and girder

USES OF LIFT SLAB


Lift slab can be used for heights up
to about 16 stories. Economical
column spacing ranges from 22 to
32 feet.
Columns may be pipe, tubes or
wide flange sections; concrete
columns may be used in 3- to 4story buildings not requiring
splices