Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 62

Human

Dentition
Introduction
:Dental Anatomy Includes
.Nomenclature & terminology- 1

The external morphology and internal- 2


.composition of individual teeth
3-How tooth form serves its function.
The relationship of teeth to each other- 4
.and to the jaw bones
Dental Anatomy
Nomenclature
The Jaws & Dental Arches
The
The Jaws
Jaws and
and Dental
Dental Arches
Arches
 A.The maxilla is two
bones forming
the upper jaw;
they are rigidly attached
to the skull.

 B. The mandible is
a horse-shoe
shaped bone which
articulates with the
skull by way of the
temporo-mandibular
joint the TMJ.
Quadrants: Right Left
right & left
quadrants
Maxillary right

and left.

Mandibular
right

4 left.
and
Quadrants Right Left
Functions of Teeth
1- Mastication:
teeth are designed to perform this function.
Incisors Canine Premolars Molars

Chisel like Wedge like At least two Multiple


Cutting or Cutting projections projections
incising and (.cusps) ( cusps)
tearing Tearing and Grinding
grinding
2- Appearance:
- Well arranged clean
teeth with proper
alignment give nice
appearance to the face. –
Teeth give support to the
facial expressions.

3- Speech:
for clear pronunciation and
production of sound.

4- Growth of jaws:
The teeth play a role in the growth of the jaws in some
periods of life.
Types of Teeth
Types of
Teeth Anterior Teeth
for
cutting & tearing
food

Posterior Teeth
Anterior Teeth-
Upper

Canine lateral Central


Incisors
Anterior Teeth- Lower

Canine lateral - Central


Incisors
Premolars:
(in permanent only)

Upper
First premolar
&
Second premolar

Lower
Molars:

Upper

First & second

Lower
Wisdom tooth =
Third permanent molar
Types of Dentitions:
Primary & Permanent
Dentition
Types of Dentitions:
I-Primary Dentition
Deciduous ,baby, milk
teeth:
a. Twenty ( 20)
primary teeth.
b. 10 in each arch
c. 5 in each quadrant

In function:
2 years  12 years
I-Primary
Dentition
Mixed Dentition
Period
6 years  12 years

Eruption Shedding
of of
first last
permanent primary
molar molar
6 years  eruption of first permanent molar
12 years  Shedding of last primary molar
II-Permanent Dentition

In
function:
12 years

through
out
life
Permanent Teeth
Tooth Identification
Systems
Numbering or Coding Systems

1.Palmer Notation System

2.Universal System

3.International FDI System


(two digit system)
1-Palmer Notation System
for Permanent Teeth
Right Left
1 1 2 3 1-8
3 2
8-1 4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 8

7
6
8-1 5
1-8
4
3
1 2
It represents the four quadrants of the dentition
as if you are facing the patient.
In upper right In upper left
In lower right In lower left
The permanent
Horizontal teeth
and vertical lines are numbered
= symbol for the quadran
from 1-8 on each side from the
midline.

Upper right Upper left


8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 Lower right Lower
Palmer Notation System
A
or Primary Teeth B
C
E-A D A-E
E

E-A A-E
The deciduous teeth are lettered
from A-E on each side from the midline

Upper right Upper left

E D C B A A B C D E

E D C B A A B C D E

Lower right Lower left


Palmer Notation System
2-The International Numbering
System
“FDI” Federation Dentaire International
The teeth are designated by using two-
(the
digits:
two digit system)

a. The first digit of the code is located at the left


side of the number and indicates the quadrant:

In permanent dentition In deciduous


dentition

U.R. 1 2 U.L. U.R. 5 6


U.L

L.R. 4 3 L. L. L.R. 8 7
L.L.
2- For permanent Teeth
International
12 11 21 22
13 23
14 24
System 15
16
25
26
(Two Digit 17 27
System) 18 28
rst Digit = quadrant
“FDI” 38
Federation 48
1 2
Dentaire 47
37
46 36
International
35
4 3 45
44
43
34
42 41 31 3233
ond Digit = Tooth number in the quadran
b- The second digit is located at the right side of the
number
and indicates the number of the tooth in the quadrant.

The two digits should be pronounced separately.


Permanent teeth
18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
2- For Primary Teeth
51 61
International 52 62
53 63
System 54 64
(Two Digit
rst Digit = quadrant55
System) 5 6 65

rst Digit “FDI”


= quadrant
Federation 8 7
Dentaire
5 6 85 75
International
84
8 7 74
83 73
82 81 71 72
For Primary Teeth
5 6
First Digit = quadrant 8 7
ond Digit = Tooth number in the quadran

Primary Teeth

55 54 53 52 51 61 62 63 64 65

85 84 83 82 81 71 72 73 74 75
Universal
system
for
Permane
nt Teeth
Universal
System
for Primary
Teeth
Macro & Micro-anatomy
of Teeth
crown

neck

root
Surrounding Bone:
Crypt  developing tooth
Socket  erupted tooth root
Anatomical Crown & Clinical Crown
Single-rooted Multi-rooted
Micro-anatomy of Teeth
Pulp Cavity

1-Coronal pulp:

•Pulp chamber

•Pulp horns

2-Radicular pulp:
•Root canal
•Apical foramen
Pulp Cavity in Root
2-Radicular pulp:

•Root canal

•Apical foramen
Surfaces
of
Teeth
Surfaces of teeth are identified by
the relationship to
surrounding orofacial structures
Each tooth
has
Five
surfaces:

1.Facial
2.Lingual,
3.Mesial, and
4. Distal (proximal)
5.Functioning surf.
(Incisal) occlusal,
FACIAL SURFACE
any surface on the outside
(towards the face)

1.LABIAL is facial
surface of the
anterior teeth
(green),
2. BUCCAL is the
facial surface
of the posterior
teeth (blue).
Inter-proximal
surfaces:
Surfaces in between two teeth:

1. Facing towards the


midline: MESIAL.
2. Facing away from the
midline:  DISTAL
LINGUAL
The surfaces facing the tongue

PALATAL palatal

on the maxilla.
Functioning Surfaces:
chewing/biting surfaces of teeth :

OCCLUSAL: chewing surfaces of


posterior teeth
INCISAL: the anteriors’
biting surface
Line and Point Angles
Division into Thirds
Line and Point Angles

:Line angle
It is formed by the junction
of two surfaces
and its name is derived
from both surfaces
:Point angle
It is formed by the junction
of three surfaces
and its name is derived
.from these surfaces
Line Angles
of Anterior Teeth
Line Angles
of Posterior Teeth
Point Angles
Meeting of 3 surfaces
Division into Thirds
Anatomical Landmarks
of the Crown
Developmental data:
:Lobe
•It is one of the primary
centers of calcification and
growth formed during the
crown development.

• Each tooth begins to


develop from four lobes or
more.

•The pulp chamber has pulp


horns corresponding to
these lobes.
Anterior teeth

premolars
Maxillary molars

Mandibular molars
A- Crown Elevations:
1-Mamelons 2-Cingulum 3-Cusps

They are three


small rounded
projections of
enamel present in It is the bulge
the incisal third of on the cervical
newly erupted third of lingual They are pyramidal
incisors surface of the projections on the
crown in incisal portion of the
anterior teeth canine and on the
occlusal surfaces of
the premolars and
molars
4-Tubercle
It is a small elevation produced by
. excessive formation of enamel
: Tubercle is noticed at
•the palatal surface of E & 6
•sometimes at the lingual
surface of
incisors over the cingulum.

N.B. Tubercle differs from cusp , it


is formed of enamel only while
cusp is formed of pulp horn
covered by dentin and enamel.
5-Ridges
Marginal Linear
Triangular

Ridge or elevation
of enamel forming
•Linear ridges:
the margin of the Elevated portions
surface of a tooth; of tooth run in a
Transverse Ridge line named for
• on mesial /distal
margins of lingual their location
surfaces anterior •Cervical
teeth. •Incisal
• mesial & distal •Labial
margins of occlusal •Buccal
surfaces posterior
teeth Oblique Ridge •Lingual
B-Crown
Depressions
Linear Depressions Irregular Depressions
1-Developmental 1-Fossa
grooves: Depression or concavity
Shallow grooves that
separate cusps or primary
parts of teeth

2- Supplemental
grooves:
•Small , irregularly placed •Lingual
auxiliary grooves. fossa
•Branches from developmental grooves.
•They do not denote union of primary
lobes. •triangular
•The third molars followed by second fossae
permanent molars are characterized by
high number of supplemental grooves. •Central
fossa
Linear Depressions Irregular Depressions
3- Fissures 2- PITS:
• Found in the bottom of
•b- FAULTY PIT:
developmental grooves.
• Develop as a result
•Result from incomplete union of
• of incomplete formation of
the primary lobes.
enamel.
•Represent a fault in enamel.
• It is located at the end of
the buccal developmental
grooves of the lower molars or
palatal developmental
grooves of the upper molars.