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Hypothesis Testing

ELESTA1

Hypothesis Testing

A systematic procedure for deciding


whether the results of a research study,
which examines a sample, support a
particular theory or practical innovation,
which applies to the population (Aron &
Aron (2004).

An example of data for


Hypothesis Testing

A researcher wanted to determine the


relationship between a students
performance in general psychology and
his attitude towards the subject.
Performance was measured through a
series of tests in GENPSYC
Attitude is measured through by the Shore
and Shores Attitude Scale.

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

STEP 1: State the Null and alternative


Hypothesis
H0=There is no significant relationship
between attitude and performance.

r=0

H1=There is a significant relationship


between attitude and performance

r=0

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

STEP2: Determine the alpha level of


significance, degrees of freedom and
critical value
Alpha level: =.05, .01
5% or 1% of the comparison distribution in
which a sample would be considered an
extreme that the possibility that it came
from a distribution like this would be
rejected.
5% or 1% = region of rejection
95 or 99%=region of acceptance

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

Degrees of Freedom (df)


refers to power of a statistical test
The more cases the higher the df, then the
more probability the sample will represent
the population.
df=n-2

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

Critical value
Cut-off sample score
How extreme a sample score is needed to
draw a confident conclusion

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

STEP 3: Computation
Formulas are used to determine the
obtained or computed value

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

STEP 4: Decision Rule


Decide whether to reject or retain the null
hypothesis
Reject the null hypothesis if the probability
of getting a result is less than 5%, p<.05
When a sample score is so extreme that
researchers reject the null hypothesis, the
result is said to be statistically significant

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

p < .05/.01 = reject the H0, significant


p > .05/.01 = retain the H0, not significant
Obtained value > critical value = reject the
H0, significant
Obtained value < critical value =retain the
H0, not significant

Example
1.

2.
3.
4.

Ho: There is no significant relationship


between attitude and performance
H1; There is a significant relationship
between attitude and performance
N = 157, =.05, df=155, r critical=.161
r computed = .11, p value=.19
Decision=since the r obtained which is .
11 is less the r critical (.161), the null
hypothesis is not rejected. There is no
significant relationship between attitude
and performance in general psychology

Illustration
2.5%
region of
rejection

2.5%
region of
rejection

95%

Z=1.38
r=.11

Z=2.03,
r=.161

Decision Errors

Type 1 error = if you reject the null


hypothesis when in fact the null
hypothesis is true
Type 2 = in reality the research hypothesis
is true, but the result doesnt come out
extreme enough to reject the null
hypothesis

Decision error
Real situation
H0 is true
H1 is supported
Reject Ho
Study
inconclusive
Do not reject
H0

Real situation
H1 is true

Type I error

Type II error