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Intermolecular

forces

SUMMARY

CHEMICAL BOND
Highlight:
Covalent bond
Ionic bond
Metallic bond

CONCEPTS
Valence electron
Lewis dot formula
Electronegativity
Polar, non polar bond
Polarity
Dipole, dipole moment

SUMMARY

PART 2: MOLECULAR SHAPE


Highlight:
Lewis structure
Octet rule
Molecular
geometry

CONCEPTS
How to draw a LEWIS
structure
Octet rule
VSEPR (Valence-Shell
Electron Pair Repulsion)
theory
Determine the molecular
shape by VSEPR

THIS WEEK
HIGHLIGHT:
Intermolecular
forces: forces that
hold molecules
together
Different types of
forces between the
molecules

CONCEPTS
Types of intermolecular
forces
Bond length
Van der Waals force
Polarity vs. polarisability
H-bond

Physical State And Phase Changes


Chemical change
Chemical properties: characteristics of matter
related to its chemical change
Chemical bond= INTRAmolecular forces -chemical
properties
Physical change
Physical properties : characteristics of matter
that can be observed without changing its
chemical identity
INTERmolecular forces physical properties

Physical State And Phase Changes


Matter can change to many different physical
states
Type of physical phase changes:
- Liquid to solid: freezing
- Liquid to gas: vaporisation
- Gas to liquid: condensation
- Gas to solid: freezing
- Solid to gas: vaporisation
- Solid to liquid: melting
- Dissolution of solid

Lets watch this video.

Dissolution of compounds.
Answer these questions?
1. Why can we dissolve NaCl in water (H2O)?
2. Why can we not do that to Gold?
It is the intermolecular forces that determine the
physical properties.

Molecular Forces
Intramolecular forces (bonding forces) exist within
each molecule and influence the chemical properties
of the substance.
Example:
Cl2 (Chloride)

Intermolecular forces (nonbonding forces) exist


between the molecules and influence the physical
properties of the substance.

Molecular Forces
Intramolecular forces are relatively strong
because they involve larger charges that are
closer together.
Intermolecular forces are relatively weak
because they typically involve smaller charges
that are farther apart.
All forces (attractive and repulsive
interaction) between atoms arise from
electrostatic forces

Bond length and Van der Waals


The separation distance is known either as the:
- Bond length (for intramolecular), or the
- Van der Waals (VDW) distance (for
intermolecular)
VDW distance > bond length: since the forces of
attraction are weaker
2 types of atomic radii (=dist/2)
- Covalent radius
- VDW radius

INTRAmolecular Forces

INTRAmolecular Forces: REVIEW


1) Ionic charge: when the molecule has an excess of
negative (anion) or positive (cation) charge
2) Dipole moment
Do you remember?
) Ionic and polar covalent bond have an unequal
sharing of electrons between the two atoms
)

Polar compounds: dipole moment expresses the


polarity

) Molecular shape affect the overall dipole moment

INTERmolecular Forces

INTERmolecular Forces
1. Ion-dipole
2. Dipole-Dipole
3. Ion-induced Dipole
4. Dipole-Induced Dipole
5. Dispersion (London)

1.ION-DIPOLE
Ion-Dipole Forces
FORCES

When an ion and a nearby polar molecule (dipole)


attract each other, an ion-dipole force results.
Examples

The most important example takes place when an


ionic compound dissolves in water.

Ion-Dipole Forces

Example: Dissolution of NaCl in water

Example: Dissolution of NaCl in water


H2O molecules interact with NaCl by ION-DIPOLE
The positive end of H2O molecules attract Cl- ions
The negative end of H2O molecules attract Na+ ions

The interactions cause the salt (NaCl) to break


apart/or dissolve in water

Example: Dissolution of NaCl in water


When each ions are separated
More water molecules stay around the ions
This forms hydration shells

2.DIPOE-DIPOLE
Dipole-Dipole FORCES

When polar molecules lie near one another:


their partial charges act as tiny electric fields
orient them and give rise to dipole-dipole forces
the positive pole of one molecule attracts the
negative pole of another

Dipole-Dipole

Solid

Liquid

Dipole-dipole Forces: decide the boiling


points of some compounds
with similar molar mass:
bp of polar molecules
molecules

> bp of nonpolar

Why?
The greater the dipole moment
the greater the dipole-dipole forces
between the molecules
the more energy it takes to separate
them.

Dipole-Dipole Force: decide the boiling points


decide the boiling points of some
compounds

HYDROGEN BOND: a special type of dipoledipole forces

A dipole-dipole force arises between molecules that


have an H atom bonded to a small, highly
electronegative atom with lone pairs.
The most important atoms are N, O, and F.
So hydrogen bonding occur when a compound has one
of these atoms.

Hydrogen Bond

Hydrogen Bond
How to draw a hydrogen bond

Hydrogen Bond: Practice


Draw the H-bond of these compounds?.

Hydrogen Bond:
Draw the H-bond of these compounds?.

Hydrogen Bond: THE SPECIAL CASE OF


WATER

Hydrogen Bond

SUMMARY
of INTERMOLECULAR
FORCES
DIPOE-DIPOLE
FORCES

SUMMARY
of INTERMOLECULAR
FORCES
DIPOE-DIPOLE
FORCES
WHY do you think IM Forces also are as
important as Intramolecular forces?
BECAUSE, some physical properties of
substances that are affected by the
strength of the intermolecular force?

Boiling point
Vapour pressure
Heat of vaporisation
Surface tension
Viscosity

SUMMARY
of INTERMOLECULAR
FORCES
DIPOE-DIPOLE
FORCES
BOILING POINT
Dispersions forces
between the
molecules increase
with higher molecular
weigh higher
boiling point

SUMMARY of INTERMOLECULAR FORCES


With the same MW, the strength of Dipole
interaction influence the boiling point

SUMMARY
of INTERMOLECULAR
FORCES
DIPOE-DIPOLE
FORCES
BOILING POINT: Effect of H-BONDS?

SUMMARY
of FORCES
DIPOE-DIPOLE
FORCES