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RADIATION

PHYSICS

Presentation Outline
1-Discovery of X-rays
2-Overview of Atomic Structure
3-Members and Properties of
the Electromagnetic
Spectrum .
4- Properties of X-rays
5-Related Terminology

Discovery of X-rays
X-rays were discovered in 1895 by the physicist
Wilhem Conrad Roentgen, who called them X.rays because their nature was at first unknown
He was interested in the cathode tubes (stimulated
internally by an electric volt and totally evacuated fro
.air) and decided to see what they could do
He covered the cathode tube with a shield of blackcardboard and
worked in a totally dark room.
He saw a luminescent greenish faint glow coming from a fluorescent
screen(a chemically-painted screen) placed on the table opposite the
tube

He discovered then that certain invisible rays


were emanating from the tube and
penetrating the cardboard shield, and fell
upon the luminescent screen, thus revealing
their existence and making darkness visible.
He was even more amazed to
find that when the rays passed
through body parts, such as the
hands, the bones beneath the
skin became clearly visible on
First image taken by the screen.
Roentgen for his He recognized that these nonwifes hands with a reflected,invisible,mysterious
penetrate solid
ring on her finger rays could
In early 1896, X-rays were
objectsbeing
andutilized
produce
an image
of
clinically
in
thesensitized
United States plates
for such
them on
things as bone fractures
.and gun shot wounds

:Composition of matter
Substance of which all physical things are made
Occupies space and has inertia Has mass and can exert force or be acted upon by force
Can exist in three forms: solid, liquid or gas
:Divided into elements or compounds Elements are accumulations of a single
atom species
Compounds are recurring arrangements
of units of at least two different atoms

:Atomic structure
a. Central nucleus: (+ ve charged)
Protons: carry the + ve chargeNeutrons: electrically neutralb. Revolving electrons: ( - ve
charged)
They revolve around the nucleus in paths
or shells designated letters from K to Q
NB: An atom in its ground state is
electrically neutral containing equal
.numbers of protons and electrons

Atom (electrically neutral)

K-shell
L-shell
M-shell

protons
neutrons
electrons

Atomic Number (Z) = # of protons

NB: Atoms cannot be subdivided by


ordinary means but only broken
down into smaller sub-atomic
particles by high energy techniques

:Forces inside the nucleus


Atoms are present normally in a balanced
state due to equalization and balance
:between two forces
Electrostatic force: Force of attraction
between + ve protons and ve
.electrons
Centrifugal force: Constant spinning
motion of electrons at high speeds
around the nucleus pulling them away
Binding energy: Energy required to
remove an electron from its orbit

Electrostatic Force
Attraction between protons
and electrons

Centrifugal Force
Pulls electrons away
from nucleus

EF

CF

Balance between electrostatic force


and centrifugal force keeps
electrons in orbit around nucleus

Electrostatic force is the attraction between the


positive protons and negative electrons. Electrons
in the orbit closest to the nucleus (the K-shell) will
have a greater electrostatic force than will
. electrons in orbits further from the nucleus
Another term often used is binding energy; this
basically represents the amount of energy
required to overcome the electrostatic force to
remove an electron from its orbit. For our
purposes, electrostatic force and binding energy
are the same. The higher the atomic number of
an atom (more protons), the higher the
electrostatic force will be for all electrons in that
.atom

Ionization and Excitation:

When energy strikes an atom, and is transferred to an orbital


electron ionization or excitation may occur:

Ionization: The process by which an atom loses its neutrality


and becomes an ion, either by addition of an electron (forming a
ve ion) or by removal of an electron (forming a +ve ion).To
cause such ionization, sufficient energy is required to overcome
the electrostatic force binding the electrons to the nucleus.
Excitation: If the transferred energy is not great enough to
remove an orbital electron, it will raise the electron to a higher
energy level within the atom. For the atom to return to its
ground (stable state), the electron raised to a higher energy
level is moved to an orbit at a lower energy level. In achieving
this, energy must be lost and is given up in the form of
electromagnetic radiation.

Ionization State
Ionization is the process of removing an
electron from an electrically neutral atom to
produce an ion pair. An ion is an atom or
subatomic particle with a positive or negative
.charge

Ionization
X-ray enters atom and
strikes electron, knocking it
out of its orbit and creating
two ions (ion pair). The
ejected electron is the
negative ion and the atom
with a net positive charge is
the positive ion.

negative ion
)electron (

positive ion: atom


with 3 protons, 2
electrons

:Types of radiation
Radiation is the emission,
transmission and propagation of
energy through space or matter in
.the form of particles or waves
:There are two types of radiation
A. Particulate or corpuscular
radiation
B. Electromagnetic radiation

:A. Particulate Radiation


Consists of tiny sub-atomic particles that have mass, *
charge (except neutrons) and move at high speeds in
.straight lines
They transmit kinetic energy by their extremely fast *
moving and small masses
They are given off from radium, uranium radioisotopes *
. or during atom splitting by high energy techniques
:Examples of particulate radiation
Alpha rays (from nucleus of heavy metals) Beta rays and cathode rays ( high speed electrons) -

B. Electromagnetic Radiation
The movement of energy
through space as a combination
of electric and magnetic fields
Travel at the speed of light
(3 x 108 meters/second)
(186,000 miles/second)

B. Electromagnetic
:radiation
According to their energy and wavelength, they
can be classified into ionizing and non-ionizing
radiation. They can be arranged according to
:their wavelength
Ionizing Radiation:
Non ionizing
:Radiation
Cosmic rays
4. Ultraviolet rays . 1
Gamma rays
5. Visible rays . 2
X-rays
6. Infra-red rays . 3
Micro-waves. 7
Radio, radar and TV. 8
waves

Properties of electromagnetic
:radiation
Made of pure energy units called. 1
photons or quanta
They have no charge. 2
They have no mass or weight. 3
They propagate in the form of waves . 4
They are a combination of electric. 5
and magnetic fields
They travel at the speed of light . 6
)miles/ sec 186,000(

They differ in their properties and . 7


energies according to their wavelengths.
The shorter the wave length, the higher
the energy; the higher the frequency the
.higher the energy
wavelength x frequency v = Speed of
light
meter
x
cycle/sec = 3 x 10
m
eters/sec
meters/sec
WL

Electromagnetic Spectrum

radio TV visible x-rays gamma cosmic


light
rays
rays

Cosm
ic

Gamma

X-rays

Visibl
e
Light

TV-waves

Radiowaves

Cosmic rays ------------------shortest w + highest


frequency = highest penetration = least absorption
RadioWaves------------------ longest w + lowest frequency
= lowest penetration =
highest absorption

F
Wavelength x Frequency = Speed of light

ENERGY
Ability to penetrate
Shorter wavelength, higher energy
Higher frequency, higher energy

A
B

Highest energy
Shortest wavelength
Highest frequency

C
Highest energy?

X-ray Characteristics
High energy waves
No mass
No charge (neutral)
Travel at speed of light
Invisible

X-ray Characteristics
Travel in straight line
Cannot be focused to a point
Differentially absorbed
Cause fluorescence
Harmful to living tissue

X-rays have extremely short wave lengths )A 1 -0.1(


The efficiency of X-ray penetration and :absorption depends on
:a. Wavelength of the x-rays
The shorter the rays the higher penetration
power
:b. Frequency of the x-rays
The higher frequency the higher the
penetration
:c. Photon energy of the x-rays
The higher the energy the higher the
penetration

:In addition to
d. The density of the radio-graphed
:object
The higher the density, the less penetration
:e. Atomic number of the object
The higher the atomic number, the less the
penetration
:f. Thickness of the object
The greater the thickness, the less the
penetration

X-rays can affect the photographic film emulsion causing physical changes within
the emulsion (latent image) that cannot be
.seen except after processing
X-rays can cause certain substances to fluoresce or emit radiation of longer
.wavelength in the form of visible light
X-rays cause ionization of atoms with the formation of ion pairs. In the human body ,
these ion pairs cause several harmful
.effects
X-rays cause biological damages in the human body in the form of somatic and
.genetic effects

X-ray Machine

support arms
tubehead

control panel

X-ray Machine
a.Tube head and power supply
i. Tube
ii. Accessories
b. Support or adjusting arms
c. Control panel and timer

X-ray Tube head


degrees

PID or
(cone)

PID = position indicating device

Control Panel
Exposure Time

exposure time
adjustment

70 kVp 7 mA

Control Panel

X-ray Tube head


degrees

PID or
(cone)

PID = position indicating device

X-ray Tube Components

X-ray Tube
2

1
Tungesten
filament

Cupper head
Cupper arm

Focal spot
7 upon Glass
8
tungesten
target tube
9

1. focusing cup
6. copper stem or head
2. filament
7. leaded glass
Focusing cup
3. electron stream
8. x-raysUseful x-ray beam
4. vacuum
9. glass window
electrons
5. target
Tube window

Cathode (1,2)

Anode (3,4)

Ionization State
Ionization is the process of removing an
electron from an electrically neutral atom to
produce an ion pair. An ion is an atom or
subatomic particle with a positive or negative
.charge

Ionization
X-ray enters atom and
strikes electron, knocking it
out of its orbit and creating
two ions (ion pair). The
ejected electron is the
negative ion and the atom
with a net positive charge is
the positive ion.

negative ion
)electron (

positive ion: atom


with 3 protons, 2
electrons

X-ray Tube

The
tube
i. The
tube
The
tube
Evacuated
tube
of glass
with two
poles
Evacuated
tube
of
glass
with
two
Evacuated tube of glass with two
a. Cathode)
& b. (Anode)
poles
(Cathode)
poles (Cathode)&
&(Anode)
(Anode)
The x-ray tube is evacuated to prevent
collision of the moving electrons with
gas molecules, which would
significantly reduce their speed. This
also prevents oxidation and burn-out"
of the filament

a. Cathode
The cathode in an x-ray tube consists of a filament
and a focusing cup.

1. The filament
is the source of electrons within the x-ray tube.
It is a coil of tungsten wire about 0.2 cm in
diameter and 1cm or less in length.

2. Focusing
cup

A negatively charged concave reflector made of


molybdenum. The focusing cup focuses the
electrons emitted by the heated filament into a
narrow beam directed at a small rectangular
area on the anode called the focal spot.

Cathode
Filament
(tungsten)

Focusing
cup
(molybdenum)

Thermionic Emission
Release of electrons from hot filament
when current flows after depressing
exposure switch
x-section
hot
of
filament
filament

electrons

The hotter the filament gets, the greater the


number of electrons that are released.

b. Anode
The anode consists of a tungsten target
embedded in a copper stem

Target. 1
The purpose of the target in an x-ray tube is to
convert the kinetic energy of the electrons
generated from the filament into x-ray photons. In
this process more than 99% of the electron kinetic
energy converted to heat.
The focal spot is the area on the target to which the
focusing-cup directs the electrons from the filament

2. Copper stem or head


The tungsten target is typically embedded in a large
block of copper to dissipate heat. Copper, a good
Thermal conductor, dissipates heat from the tungsten,
thus reducing the risk of the target melting.
In addition, insulating oil between the glass envelope
and the housing of the tube head carries heat away from
the copper stem.
This type of anode is a stationary anode.

Tungsten

(Filament and Target)


High atomic number (Target,filament)
because it is most efficient in producing electrons.

Transfers heat readily (Target) thus dissipating


heat into the copper stem.

High melting point (Target, Filament)


Can be drawn into fine wire (Filament)

Anode
Dental x-ray machines have stationary anode
side view

front view

Target
Copper stem

Target

Line Focus Principle


The smaller the focal spot (target), the
sharper the image (teeth) will be.
During x-ray production, a lot of heat is
generated. If the target is too small, it will
overheat and burn up.
The target is inclined at an angle about 20
degrees to the central x-ray beam. This
provides a larger actual focal spot for better
heat dissipation and a minimal effective focal
spot leading to increased image sharpness.

Focal spot

Film

Line Focus Principle


Target
Anode
(+)
Cathode
(-)

Actual focal
spot size

Apparent (effective)
focal spot size

PID

Line Focus Principle

Actual focal spot size


(looking perpendicular
to the target surface)

Apparent (effective) focal


spot size (looking at target
surface through PID)

PID

The power supply of the x-ray machine:


The primary function of the power supply is to
provide:
1. A current to heat the filament
2. A potential difference between the cathode and
anode.
These functions are accomplished by the use of
auto-transformers.
a. Step-down transformer: connected to the
filament, reduces the voltage of the incoming
alternating current from 220v to 8-12 volts.
b. Step-up transformer: connected to the copper
stem, it raises the voltage from 8-12 v to 65-75kv
even 90kv

Autotransformer
Controls voltage between
anode and cathode. It
serves as a step-up and
step down transformer
Regulated by kVp selector

Metal housing
The glass tube, oil and transformers are surrounded
by a metal housing which has a small aperature from
which the useful beam emerges and this metal
housing is made from lead to prevent leakage of
radiation except for useful beam , it supports and
protects the x-ray tube and oil. It is also a part of the
dissipating heat chain

Oil in the X-ray Tubehead:


Insulates the electrical components
Cools the anode
Filters the x-ray beam
Step-up
Trans
oil

Step-down
Trans

Exposure Switch

Allows current to flow to complete high


and low voltage circuits.
Indicator light and sound
You cannot overexpose by holding
the exposure switch down too long!

ii. Accessories
a. Filters
b. Collimator
c. Cones

Filtration
The process of removing
low-energy x-rays from
the x-ray beam

:a. Filters
It is a sheet of aluminum which absorbs xrays of long wave length having low
.penetration power
:Types
Inherent filtration: Materials built. 1
within the pathway of the primary beam
from the focal spot to outside the tube.
:They include
Glass wall of the tube
Insulating oil around the tube
Metal housing around the tube
It is determined by the manufacturer and is
equivalent to 0.5 to 1 mm aluminum

:Added filtration. 2
It is the addition of aluminum sheets to
.the machine
:Total filtration. 3
It is the sum of inherent and total
.filtration
Equivalent to 1.5 mm aluminum in
.machines up to 70 kvp
Equivalent to 2.5 mm aluminum in
.machines higher than 70 kvp

PID

The aluminum filter


is usually located
in the end of the
PID which attaches
to the tubehead.

filter

Total Filtration

Glass window of
x-ray tube

Oil/Metal
barrier

Inherent

oil

Added

=
(Aluminum filter)

Total

70 kVp and above


2.5 mm aluminum equivalent
Below 70 kVp
1.5 mm aluminum equivalent

b. Collimation
Regulates the size and/or shape of
the x-ray beam
Function:
1. area exposed to x-ray (less
patient exposure)
2. scatter radiation (increases
image quality)

Collimation
collimator

front views

target
(x-ray source)

collimated
beam

2.75 inches (7 cm) = maximum diameter of circular beam or maximum


length of long side of rectangular beam at end of PID.

Collimation: Regulates the size


and/or shape of the x-ray beam.

PID

filter

Collimator

:Types
Diaphragm collimator: A thick. 1
plate of lead with an aperture
Tubular collimator: A tube made. 2
of lead with one end in conjunction
.to a diaphragm collimator
Rectangular collimator: provides. 3
.a beam of rectangular shape

Diaphragm and
rectangular collimators

Collimated film holder

c. Cone or ( Position
Indicating Device)
It is device used to fix the target-object
distance and indicate the point of entry of
:the x-ray beam. Classified according to
a. Shape: Cylindrical, rectangular and
conical
b. Length: Short cone 8 inch and Long cone
16 inch
c. Material: Plastic, glass, metal or
combination of plastic cone with a thin lead
.lining

Rectangular
cone

Cylindrical cone

Timer
Its a device which controls the time of
exposure and is calibrated in fractions of
seconds
1- Automatic or electronic timers
A. Direct or immediate timers:
Press button just to activate the exposure but the
time is adjusted and will stop automatically even
if we continue to press on the button
Associated with long cord to enable us to extend
away from the field of radiation

B. Delayed timer:
Provide an interval of 7-9 sec before the start of
exposure so it provides us a period to get away
from the fields of exposure
2. Manual timers
Exposure is controlled manually; exposure will
stop only if we stop pressing on the button.
Associated with long cord to enable us to
extend away from the field of radiation

X-ray Machine Components

oil

filament

exposure
button

filter

X-ray production

1.
Depress
exposure
button
2.
low-voltage
circuit
to
heat
filament
3. Activate
high-voltage
circuit
to
pulland
electrons
across
tube
5.
X-ray
production
stops
when
exposure
time ends.
4.
Electrons
cross tube,
strike
target
produce
x-rays
Release exposure button

X-ray Production
3

Electron interactions with target atoms:

Less than 0.2% produce x-rays


While more than 99.8 % produce heat