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EXERCISE IN THE COLD

COLD STRESS

An environmental condition that causes a


loss of body heat that could affect
homeostasis.
MAJOR COLD STRESSORS

• air

• water
Thermo-regulatory center

• Also known as the hypothalamus

• the body has a set point of 37 celsius or 99


fahrenheit

• Any decrease will activate mechanisms that


conserve body heat and increase heat
production.
Heating mechanisms of the
body
1.) Shivering

is uncontrolled muscular contractions that
causes an increases in the body's resting rate of
heat production.

2.) Non-shivering thermogenesis



is the stimulation of metabolism by the
sympathetic nervous system that increases the
amount of internal heat production.
Heating mechanisms of the
body
3.) Peripheral vasoconstriction

• sympathetic simulation of the smooth


muscle surrounding the arterioles in the
skin.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT
BODY HEAT LOSS
1.)Body size and composition

• Rate of heat loss is affected by the ratio of


body surface area to body mass.
Body's insulative shell

a.) Subcutaneous fat

• An excellent source insulation.

• Thermal conductivity of fat is relatively low,


so it prevents heat from being transferred
from the deep tissues to the body surface.
Body's insulative shell

• Gender differences can also be a factor in cold


tolerance.
Body's insulative shell

b.) Underlying muscle


A vasoconstricted inactive muscle that can
provide 85% of the body's total insulation
during exposure to extreme cold.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT BODY
HEAT LOSS
2.) Wind Chill

• the increasing rate of heat loss through


convection and conduction.

• The larger the difference between the


temperature of the skin and the cold
environment the greater the heat loss.
HEAT LOSS IN COLD WATER

• Heat loss in water is 26 times faster than in


air.

• This is due to the transfer of heat during


immersion in water or conduction.
HEAT LOSS IN COLD WATER


Prolonged immersion in water at about 15
degrees or 59 fahrenheit can lead to extreme
hypothermia and death


The rate of heat loss is increased if the cold
water is moving around the individual.
HEAT LOSS IN COLD WATER

• If metabolic rate is low even a moderately


cool water could lead to hypothermia

• Heat loss is accelerated when swimming at


high speeds but the swimmers increased rate
of metabolic production compensates for it.
PHYSIOLOGICAL
RESPONSES OF TRAINING IN
THE COLD
METABOLIC RESPONSES
Higher glycogen consumption
• Shivering

• High levels of epinephrine resulting in faster


glycogen breakdown

• Faster heat production

• Fatigue
METABOLIC RESPONSES

Higher FAT consumption


• Glycogen depletion

Less Blood flow to skin


• Preferential blood circulation
MUSCLE FUNCTION

Researchers suggests muscles become weaker


when it is cooled due to the altered recruitment
patterns of the muscle fiber.
CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION


Higher Blood pressure and heart rate.


Blood vessels constrict to conserve heat.


Blood concentrates on internal organs.


Reduces blood flow in skin.
RESPIRATORY FUNCTION


Air passages narrow to warm the air that goes
in the lungs.


Exercise-induced bronchospasm may occur


People with asthma experience more
difficulty breathing.
RISKS DURING EXERCISE IN A
COLD WEATHER
HYPOTHERMIA

caused by extremely low
body temperature.


Lethal lower limit is 23-25
degrees celsius or 72.4- 77
degrees fahrentheit.
HYPOTHERMIA


if the body temp. falls below 34.5 degrees
celsius the hypothalamus begins to loss its
ability to regulate body temp.


loss of function decreases metabolic reactions.
HYPOTHERMIA
•can cause injury to peripheral tissues and
cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

•the most important effect of hypothermia is on


the heart

•cooling the heart influences the sinoatrial node


that can cause cardiac arrest.

•decreases respiratory rate and volume.


TREATMENT FOR
HYPOTHERMIA
Mild hypothermia

• treat by removing the person from the cold


environment and placing him/her at a room
temperature place.

• provide dry clothing and warm beverages.


Severe hypothermia

• Requires immediate medical attention to


avoid cardiac arrythmia.

• Need hospital facilities to revive the victim.


FROSTBITE

• Tissue damage due to


prolonged cold exposure at
about -29 degrees celsius
or -20 degrees fahrenheit
FROSTBITE

• occurs due to the


decreased circulation to the
skin in an attempt to retain
body heat to the point that
the tissue receives
insufficient oxygen and
nutrients.
TREATMENT FOR FROSTBITE

• Immediate hospitalization is required.

• It should be left untreated until the can be


thawed.
Precautions for cold weather
training

Use adequate layers of clothing, but do not
overdress


Proper hydration


Knowing the wind direction


Planning of training
COLD ACCLIMATIZATION

• Studies have shown that chronic daily exposure to cold


water increases subcutaneous fat.

• Chronic exposure of the skin to cold environment can


provide greater tolerance and can increase vasodilation
and local warming.
Reference:

Wilmore, J., PhD., & Costill, D., PhD. (1994).


Physiology of sport and exercise. USA:
Human Kinetics.