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AMS 5 Part 2

AMS 5.2
Describe the construction of aircraft tyres, identify them by their
markings and state their application.
AMS 5.3
Describe the precautions to be observed during inflation of aircraft
tyres.
AMS 5.4
Identify faults and damage that render tyres unserviceable.
AMS 5.5
Describe the types of wheels used on aircraft and state their
applications.

AMS 5 - 2
Wheels and Tyres

Tyres
Provide a cushion of air that helps absorb the shocks
and roughness of landings and takeoffs.
Support the weight of the aircraft while on the ground
Provide the necessary traction for braking and stopping
aircraft on landing.
Aircraft tyres must be carefully maintained
to meet the rigorous demands of their basic job;
to accept a variety of static and dynamic stresses
dependably in a wide range of operating
conditions.

Tyre Construction

The basic parts of a tyre


consist of the:
Bead,
Carcass,
Tread and
Sidewall.

Tyre Construction

Tyre Construction

Tyre Construction

Tyre Treads

Plain tread

All-weather tread

Rib tread

Deflector

Classification of Aircraft Tyres


Manufactured in a variety of sizes and
strengths,
Correct types are specified by the
manufacturers,
according to the
size and
landing speed of the aircraft
involved.
Construction is similar to motor vehicle
and truck tyres.
The number of fabric plies in the tyres
varies from 2 to 16 or more.

Classification of Aircraft Tyres


The majority of tyres in use today
on light aircraft
are of the tube-type,
make use of inner tubes to
hold the air charge
most transport aircraft tyres are of the
tubeless type.
Balance marks are placed on tyres in
the form of a red dot on the side of the
tyre at the lightest point.

Classification of Aircraft Tyres


Classified by type numbers according to performance
Tyre Type

Design and Rating

Smooth contour

II

High pressure

III

Low pressure

IV

Extra low pressure

Not applicable

VI

Low profile

VII

Extra high pressure, low speed


Extra high pressure, high speed

VIII

Extra high pressure, low profile, low speed


Extra high pressure, low profile, high speed

Classification of Aircraft Tyres


Classified by type numbers according to performance
Tyre Type

Design and Rating

Smooth contour

II

High pressure

III
IV
V

Low pressure
Extra low pressure
Not applicable

VI

Low profile

VII

Extra high pressure, low speed


Extra high pressure, high speed

VIII

Extra high pressure, low profile, low speed


Extra high pressure, low profile, high speed

Tyres classified as Types I, II, IV, and VI are phasing out


because these classifications are inactive for new designs.

Classification of Aircraft Tyres


Classified by type numbers according to performance
Tyre Type

Design and Rating

III

Low pressure

Not applicable

VII

Extra high pressure, low speed


Extra high pressure, high speed

VIII

Extra high pressure, low profile, low speed


Extra high pressure, low profile, high speed

Tyres classified as Types III, VII, and VIII are manufactured


under the provisions of FAR 37.167 and are approved under
Technical Standard Order (TSO) No. C62b.

Classification of Aircraft Tyres


Such tyres are required to be permanently marked with:
the brand name or name of the manufacturer
responsible for compliance and the country of
manufacture if manufactured outside the United States;
the size, ply rating, and serial number;
the qualification test speed and skid depth when the
test speed is greater than 160 mph (257.6 km/h),
the word reinforced if applicable; and
the applicable TSO number.
Type III tyres and those specified as low-speed tyres are
approved for ground speeds of less than 160 mph (237.6
km/h).
In all cases of tyre replacement, the aircraft technician must
determine that the type of tyre specified for the aircraft is
installed.

Tyre Types
This tyre is in use today
but is considered
obsolete and is not used
on new design aircraft.

Type I Smooth Contour


Typical size: 14.50" (outside diameter).

Tyre Types
Type II tyres were brought out
with the introduction of the
retractable gear as a more
compact replacement for Type I.
Type II have been replaced
largely by Type VII tyres which
have higher load capacities.

Type II High Pressure


Typical size: 26 x 6 = (outside diameter) x (section width).

Tyre Types
The Type III tyre is used on most
piston driven aircraft today.
The section width is relatively
wider in relation to the bead
diameter.

Tyre III Low Pressure

This provides lower pressures for


improved cushioning and
flotation. Goodyear makes many
sizes of Type III tyres (in both
tubeless and tube type) for tail,
nose and main wheels.

Typical size: 9.5016 = (section width) (rim diameter).

Tyre Types
This type of tyre came in with the need
for more flotation and cushioning than
was provided by Type III tyres.
They have a very large section width
in relation to the bead diameter.
Made in limited quantities, Type IV
tyres are almost obsolete.
Sizes made are all tube type
construction for tail and main wheels.
Type IV Extra Low Pressure

Typical size: 35 x 15-6 =


(outside diameter) x (section width) (rim diameter).

Tyre Types
Made especially for nose
wheels,
Type VI tyres are noted for
their low sectional height (low
profile).
This minimises wheel drop in
the event of a flat tyre.
Type VI Low Profile

Typical size: 15 x 6.006 =


(outside diameter) x (section width) (rim diameter).

Tyre Types
Used almost universally on
today's jet aircraft.
Type VII tyres are characterised
by their conventional shape
and very high load capacities.
Goodyear currently produces
many sizes of Type VII tyres
with ply ratings ranging from 4
to 38, used on nose and main
wheels.
Type VII Extra High Pressure

Typical size: 39 x 13 = (outside diameter) x (section width).

Tyre Types
Type VIII tyres are used for
high performance jet aircraft
with their extremely high
takeoff speeds.
They use extra high inflation
pressure and have a low
profile.
Their size designation
includes the outside
diameter, section width, and
Type VIII Extra High Pressure rim diameter.
Low Profile, High Speed

An example of a tyre
designation for a Type VIII
tyre would be 30 x11.5014.5

Tyre Inspection
onis generated
the Aircraft
within the tyre
Heat
as it rolls over the ground, or
from external sources such as
the brakes or hot runway
surfaces.

Internally generated heat causes


damage. Sidewalls flex and
cause internal heat,

Designed to withstand the heat

generated by this normal flexing


for a reasonable amount of time.

Air in the tyre supports the


weight of the aircraft,

Inflation pressure is critical.


Should be checked daily and
before each flight.

Tyre Inspection on the Aircraft

Over-inflation causes accelerated centreline wear on the tread


while leaving rubber on the shoulder.
Much less resistance to skidding than it has when its tread wears
uniformly.
While over-inflation is bad, under-inflation is even worse,
Causes excess heat to be generated within the tyre.
If a tyre is allowed to deflect as much as 45%, about three times
as much heat will build up in the tyre as it is designed to
withstand.
This over-deflection can cause internal carcass damage, which
may not be visible and could easily result in premature failure of
the tyre.

Tyre Inspection on the Aircraft


Tyres that have been operated with low inflation
pressure will have their tread worn away on the
shoulders more than in the centre,

Any tyre showing this pattern of wear should be

carefully examined for evidence of hidden damage.

Maintaining the proper inflation pressure in a tyre

makes pressure checks one of the most important


parts of routine preventive maintenance.

The proper inflation pressure is that specified by the


airframe manufacturer in their service manuals,

For the same tyre, varies from one aircraft design to


another.

This pressure should be used, rather than that listed in


the tyre manufacturer's product manuals.

Tyre Inspection on the Aircraft


The pressure specified in the airframe

manufacturer's manual is for a loaded tyre;

for the tyre supporting the weight of


the aircraft.

When the tyre is subjected to this load, it will


be deflected the designed amount, and

The volume of its air chamber will be

decreased enough to raise the pressure by


about four percent.

If the service manual specifies a pressure of


187 psi, the proper inflation pressure when
the tyre is not supporting the aircraft is 180
psi.

Tyre Inspection on the Aircraft

Inaccurate pressure gauges are one of the

major causes for chronic inflation problems.

To be sure that the gauge is accurate, have it


periodically calibrated so it can be relied on.

The best gauges for this purpose are dial-type

indicators, since they are less subject to


careless handling and are easier to read in the
small increments needed to accurately
determine the tyre pressure.

Tyre Inspection on the Aircraft


Inflation pressure should always be measured when the
tyre is cold
Allow two to three hours to elapse after a flight before
you measure the pressure.
Inflation pressure of a tyre varies with the ambient
temperature by about one percent for every five degrees
Fahrenheit.
Example, if a tyre is inflated and allowed to stabilise
with a pressure of 180 psi in a shop where the
temperature is 70F, and the aircraft is rolled outside
where it remains overnight with a temperature of
zero degrees F.
The pressure will drop by 14% to about 155 psi.
It will be under-inflated and should be re-inflated.

Tyre Inspection on the Aircraft


If an aircraft is to fly into an area where the temperature is
much lower than that of the departing point, theoretically, the
pressure should be adjusted before the aircraft leaves.
If, the temperature is 100 F and the aircraft is to land where the
temperature is 40 F, the pressure should be increased before
takeoff.
If the tyre requires 187 psi, the 60 degree temperature drop will
require the pressure to 12% greater, or 210 psi.
The airframe manufacturer's manual should be consulted
before the pressure is changed to see if the maximum
allowable safe inflation pressure has not been exceeded.
Nylon tyres will stretch when they are first inflated and will
increase their volume enough to cause a pressure drop of
about five to ten percent of the initial pressure in the first 24
hours.
Their pressure should be, adjusted 12 to 24 hours after
installation.

Tread Condition
The basic strength of the tyre is in its carcass.
Tyre loses none of its strength as long as the tread does not
wear down into the body plies of the carcass.

When the tread is worn away, the traction characteristics of the


tyre are seriously affected.

A tyre that has been properly maintained and operated with the
correct inflation pressure will wear the tread uniformly,

Should be removed for retreading while there is still at least


1/32inch of tread left at its most shallow point.

When the tyre is removed at this point, there is still enough

tread left to provide traction and handling during wet runway


operation

Normal Inflation

Tread Condition
Over-inflated
Centre ribs are worn away while the shoulder
ribs still have an appreciable depth,
The tyre has been operated in an over inflated
condition,
Highly susceptible to cuts and bruises.
Should be carefully checked for this type of
damage.

Over inflated Tread wear

Tread Condition
Under-inflation
will cause the shoulder ribs to wear more than
those in the centre.
Any tyre showing this wear pattern should be
carefully inspected for signs of bulges, which
could indicate ply separation.

Under-inflation

Tread Condition
Tread that has been worn until the body
plies are visible indicates poor maintenance.
If it is worn only to the point that the tread
reinforcement is showing, it is possible that
retreading can salvage the tyre.
If it is worn into the body plies, it has gone
too far to be saved.

Poor maintenance

Tread Condition

Tread Condition
Tread cut more than halfway across a rib, or any of the
carcass plies are exposed, the tyre should be removed.
Bits of glass, rock, or metal embedded in the tread, they
should be carefully pried out with a blunt awl or a small
screwdriver.

Cuts in
Tread

Tread Condition
When a wheel locks up on a water covered runway and
rides on the surface of the water, a tremendous amount of
heat builds up at the point of contact and actually burns
the rubber.
Tyres showing heat/burn damage should be removed from
service.

Aquaplane
Damage

Tread Condition
Operating on grooved runways can cause chevron-shaped
cuts across the ribs of a tyre
If cuts extend across more than one-half of the rib, the tyre
should be removed from service.
Mark any damage or suspect area of the tyre with a light
coloured crayon before deflating the tyre, because when
the air is out, these areas will be almost impossible to
locate.

Grooved
Runway
Damage

Tyre Removal
Jack the aircraft according IAW the aircraft service
manual,

When the weight is off of the tyre, deflate it using a


deflator cap.

The high pressure in some aircraft tyres can eject the


valve core with enough velocity to injure anyone it
might hit,

After all of the air is out, the core may be safely


removed.

Remove the wheel, following the aircraft


manufacturers instructions in detail.

Ensure that the bearings are protected from damage

and are stored in a safe place until they can be


cleaned, inspected, and repacked with proper grease.

Tyre Removal
Place the wheel on a flat surface and break
the bead away from the wheel, using a
straight push as near the rim as possible.

Never use any kind of tyre tool to pry the


bead from the wheel,

The soft metal of which the wheel is

made can be easily nicked or scratched,

This type of damage will cause stress


concentrations that will lead to wheel
failure.

When the bead has been broken from both


sides of the wheel,

Remove the wheel bolts and lift the wheel


half from the tyre and remove the tyre.

If the tyre is tubeless, be careful that the Oring seal between the wheel halves is not
damaged.

Tyre Inspection Off The Aircraft


Any tyre that has been involved in an aborted
takeoff or severe braking should be replaced

Any tyre that has been exposed to enough


heat that the fusible plug in the wheel has
blown and deflated the tyre, should be
replaced.

This excessive heat has caused damage


to the tyre that has weakened the tyre
enough that it will likely fail in service.

If one tyre in a dual installation fails, there

have been enough extra stresses put into the


other tyre that it should be discarded too.

Tyre Inspection Off The Aircraft


Carefully spread the beads apart so the
inner liner can be inspected.
Don't concentrate the force used to
spread the beads, and don't spread them
more than the section width of the tyre.
The use of improper procedure when
breading the bead or when spreading it
can kink the wire bundles so the bead
cannot seat against the wheel when it is
reinstalled,
A tyre with a kinked bead should be
scrapped.

Tyre Inspection Off The Aircraft


Carefully examine the inner liner of tubeless tyres for
any bulges or blisters, and have any suspect areas
evaluated by a retreading agency.
Probe all of the suspected areas that were marked
when the tyre was inflated.
When checking any cuts, open them up enough that
you can see into their depth, but be sure you don't
puncture the tyre.
Punctures that do not exceed a quarter inch on the
outside of the tyre and one-eighth inch on the inside
and injuries that do not, penetrate more than 40% of
the actual body plies can be repaired when the tyre is
retreaded.

Tyre Inspection Off The Aircraft


If any bulges were marked when the tyre was
inflated, carefully check them to determine whether
they are ply separations or separations between
the tread and the carcass.
If it is a ply separation, the tyre must be scrapped,
but tread separation may possibly be repaired by
retreading
Carefully examine the sidewall for condition.
If any of the cords have been damaged or
exposed, the tyre cannot be repaired.
It is reasonable to suspect that the exposed
cords have been weakened by exposure to the
elements.

Tyre Inspection Off The Aircraft


The most important part of a tyre is the bead area
where all of the forces of the tyre are carried into
the wheel and where an air-tight seal must be
maintained with tubeless tyres.
Carefully examine all of the bead and the adjacent
area for indication of damage from tyre tools or
from chafing against the rim.
Any severe damage here would require the tyre to
be scrapped, but if the damage is only through the
chafer, it can be repaired when the tyre is
retreaded.

Tyre Inspection Off The Aircraft


Damage from excessive heat will usually show up on
the bead area.
Heat can build up here faster than it can be
dissipated.
If any of the bead area is damaged or has an unusual
appearance or texture.
The tyre cannot be repaired.
The bead surface from the wheel flange to the toe of the
bead is the sealing surface for a tubeless tyre, and
if it has been damaged by tyre tools or by slipping
on the wheel, it will not seal.
Bare chafer cords, however, if they are not broken, will
not normally cause a tyre to leak.
they are not necessarily a cause for removing the
tyre from service.

Tyre Repair And Retreading


Aircraft tyres are highly stressed, and no repair
should be attempted by anyone not adequately
equipped for or experienced in this work.
General guidelines for repairable tyres are given in
the FAA Advisory Circular 43,131A in the USA.
Actual repair should only be made by a repair
station equipped and approved for this work.
Time and money can be saved if we know what
definitely constitutes a non-repairable tyre, so that it
can be discarded without first being sent to the
repair station.

Tyre Repair And Retreading


Repair is not recommended for any tyre that has:
Any evidence of breaks caused by flexing.
This type of damage is only too often
associated with other damage that may not
be visible.
Bead injuries to more than the chafers.
Any injury that would prevent the bead of a
tubeless tyre sealing to the wheel.
Any evidence of separation between the plies of
around the bead wire.
Any injury that would require a reinforcement.

Tyre Repair And Retreading


Kinked or broken beads.
Weather or radial cracks in the sidewall that extend
into the cord body.
Blister or other evidence of heat damage.
Cracked, deteriorated, or damaged inner liners or
tubeless tyres.
These are only general criteria.
Before rejecting a tyre that is questionable, always
seek expert advice.

Tyre Repair And Retreading


Abrasion wears the tread away long before the
carcass is worn out

It is standard practice for commercial aircraft tyres to


be retreaded.

Tyre is thoroughly inspected by retreader.


The tread, sidewalls, and beads are checked for;
cuts,
bruises,
other damage, or
wear,
air is injected into the sidewall to check for any ply
separation.

Tyre Repair And Retreading


Checked for;
Fabric fatigue and
Indication of contamination by
oil,
grease, or
hydraulic fluid.
Old tread rubber removed by contour buffing
produces a smooth shoulder to shoulder surface.
New tread rubber and reinforcement are then applied to
the buffed carcass,

Tyre is placed in a heated mould and cured.

Tyre Repair And Retreading

After it is taken from the mould, balance patches are


bonded to the inside of the tyre to achieve the
proper static balance.

Tyre is then given a final inspection.

There is no specific limit to the number of times


tyres can be retreaded.

The tyre is identified as a retreaded tyre and a


record made of the number of times it has been
retreaded.

Determined by the condition of the carcass.

Tyre Storage
All new and retreaded tyres should be stored in a;
cool, dry area,
out of direct sunlight and
away from any electrical machinery.
Fluorescent lights, electric motors, generators,
and battery chargers all convert oxygen into
ozone, which is very harmful to rubber.

Tyre Storage
The storage room should not have extremes of
temperature, but should be maintained between
32 and 80 F (0 and 27 C).
Special care should be taken to assure that no;
grease,
oil,
hydraulic fluid,or
any other hydrocarbon compound
comes in contact with the stored tyre, as all of
these compounds will attack the rubber to
some degree.

Tyre Storage
Whenever possible the tyres should
be stored vertically in racks.
Tyre supported on a flat surface
which is at least three or four inches
wide.
If tubeless tyres are stacked horizontally, the bottom tyres in
the stack may be distorted so much that the beads will not
seat on the wheel unless a special bead-seating tool is used.

If it is necessary to stack them horizontally,


don't stack them more than;
five tyres high, for tyres with a diameter of up to 40 inches,
four tyres high for those between 40 and 49 inches, and
three tyres high for tyres larger than 49 inches.

Aircraft Tubes
Tube construction and selection

A great number of aircraft tyres are of the tube type.


Tubes for these tyres are either
unreinforced rubber for normal applications or
a special heavyduty reinforced tube
has a layer of nylon fabric melded to its
inside circumference to protect it from
chafing against the rim and from heat
caused by brake application.

Aircraft Tubes
Tube construction and selection

All aircraft tubes are made of a specially compounded


natural rubber that holds air with a minimum of
leakage.

There are two primary causes for an aircraft tube


leaking:

a hole in the tube, or


a defective valve.

It is extremely important that only the tube

recommended for a particular tyre be used with it.

If the tube is too small for the tyre, its splices will be
overstressed and the tube will be weakened

Aircraft Tubes
Tube Inspection
If a tube is suspected of leaking,
first check the valve by spreading a drop of
water over the end of the valve,
Watch to see if a bubble forms.
If a bubble does form, the valve core
should be replaced.

Aircraft Tubes
Tube Inspection
If the leak is not in the valve, the tyre must be
deflated and demounted and the tube removed.
Inflate the tube and submerge it in water to find the
source of bubbles.
If the tube is too large for the available water
container, flow water over the surface of the tube as
you look for the leak.
When inflating a tube that is not in a tyre, do not put
more air into it than is required to round it out.
Check the tube carefully around the valve stem and
the valve pad for any indication of the pad pulling
away from the tube.

Aircraft Tubes
Tube Inspection
Examine the inside circumference of the tube for
evidence of chafing against the toe of the bead or
by corrosion on the wheel.
Any tube that is chafed enough to lose
some of its thickness in spots should be
replaced.

Aircraft Tubes
Tube Inspection
The brakes on a modern highperformance aircraft
absorb tremendous amounts of energy,
Some wheels have heat shields,
Tyres and tubes cannot be completely
protected from the heat.
Examine the inner circumference of the tube for;
any indication that it has been heated enough
for the rubber to have lost its smooth contour
and taken a set or developed square corners.
Any tube that is deformed in this way should be
replaced.
Reinforced tubes should be used on installations
where there is enough heat to damage a regular tube.

Aircraft Tubes
Tube Storage

Tubes should be stored in their original cartons


whenever possible,
if their cartons are not available, they should be
dusted with tyre talcum and wrapped in heavy paper.
Tubes may also be stored inflated by putting them in
the proper size tyre and inflating them just enough to
round them out.
The inside of the tyre and the outside of the tube
should be dusted with tyre talc to prevent the tube
sticking to the tyre.

Aircraft Tubes
Tube Storage
Tubes should never be stored;

by hanging them over nails or pegs, or


supporting them in any way that would cause
a sharp fold or crease,
these creases will eventually cause the
rubber to crack.
Tubes with creases should not be put
into service.

Tubes, like any other rubber product, should be


stored in a cool dry, dark area, away from any
electrical equipment that would produce rubberdamaging ozone.

Tyre Mounting
Tubeless tyres

Most modern aircraft use the split-type wheel,


Makes tyre mounting easier than
the single piece drop-centre wheel, or
wheels having a removable flange held on
with a locking ring.

The maintenance manual must be followed in detail


when mounting and demounting the tyres.

This information includes such details as


bolt torque,
lubrication requirements, and
wheel balancing details.

Tyre Mounting
Tubeless tyres
Before the tyre is mounted on a wheel, the wheel must be
carefully inspected to ensure;

no nicks or scratches in the bead seat area, could


cause the air to leak, and

the area on which the O-ring between the wheel


halves seals.

Carefully examine the entire wheel for

Corrosion, and

Ensure that any balance weight installed when the


wheel was manufactured is securely in place.

Any evidence of the finish being scratched through


worn off,

Check the thermal fuse plugs for security and condition,


and
Air valve for the condition of its O-ring seal.

Tyre Mounting
Tubeless tyres

Clean the bead seat area and the O-ring seal area with
a cloth dampened with isopropyl alcohol, and

Place the inboard wheel half on a clean, flat surface.


Check to be sure that the tyre is approved for the
aircraft on which it is being mounted, and

The word TUBELESS is on the sidewall.


Ensure there is no foreign material inside the tyre, and
Wipe the bead area with a rag dampen with isopropyl
alcohol.

Lubricate the O-ring with the same grease used for the
wheel bearing, and

Carefully place the seal in the groove without


stretching or twisting it.

Tyre Mounting
Tubeless tyres
Apply tyre talc to the toe, or inner edge, of the bead to help the
bead to seat when the tyre is inflated.
Ensure that no powder gets between the bead and the wheel
flange.
Carefully place the tyre over the inboard wheel half with the
red dot indicting the tyre's light point adjacent to the wheel
valve, (or if some other mark on the wheel identifies its heavy
point, adjacent to that mark).
Place the outboard wheel half inside the tyre and line up the
bolt holes.
Apply an anti-seize compound to;
the threads of the bolts,
both sides of the washers, and
the bearing surface of the nuts.

Tyre Mounting
Tubeless tyres
Install the bolts and nuts, and draw all of the nuts up
in a crisscross fashion to one-half of the required
torque.
Go back and bring them all up to the full torque.

Use an accurate hand torque wrench.


Never use an impact wrench on any bolt where the
torque is critical,
Torque is applied in a series of blows or jerks,
and the actual stresses to which the bolt is
subjected are considerably greater than the bolt
is designed to take.

Tyre Mounting
Tubeless tyres
Place the wheel and tyre assembly in a safety cage,
adjust the air pressure regulator to the recommended tyre
pressure, and,
using a clipon chuck, inflate the tyre gradually.
Watch while the tyre is inflating to be sure the beads seat
against the wheel flange.
All nylon tyres stretch when they are initially inflated and should
be allowed to remain for 12 to 24 hours with no load applied.

This stretch may cause a five to ten percent decrease in


pressure.

The pressure should be adjusted after this period.


Continue to monitor the inflation pressure daily.
There will be some pressure loss, but it should not exceed 5% in
any 24-hour period.

Tyre Mounting
Tube tyres
Be sure before mounting a tube-type tyre on a wheel, that the
tyre and tube are both correct for the installation.
Inspect the wheel for any indication of damage or corrosion, and
if any corrosion is found, remove all traces of the damage and
restore the protective oxide film.
Spray on two coats of zinc chromate primer and restore the
finish to match the rest of the wheel.
Before mounting the tyre, clean the bead seat area with a rag
dampened with isopropyl alcohol.
Check the inside of the tyre to be sure that it is clean and free of
all foreign material and then dust it with an approved tyre talcum
powder.

Tyre Mounting
Tube tyres
Fold the inner tube and dust it with
talc and slip it inside the tyre with
the valve sticking out on the side of
the tyre having the serial number.
Inflate the tube just enough to
round it out and adjust it inside the
tyre so the yellow mark indicating
the heavy point of the tube aligns
with the red dot on the tyre
indicating its light point.
If there is no balance mark on the
tube, you can assume that the
valve is the heavy point.

Tube tyres

Tyre Mounting

Install the tyre and tube on the outboard wheel half so


the valve stem sticks out through the hole in the wheel.

Rub tyre talc on the toe of the bead to help it slide over
the wheel and seat itself.

Place the inboard half of the wheel in the tyre, but ensure
that the tube is not pinched.

Lubricate the bolts with anti-seize compound and tighten


the nuts in a crisscross fashion to one-half of the
required torque.

Bring all of the nuts up to the recommended value with a


good smooth pull on the handle of the torque wrench.

Tyre Mounting
Tube tyres

Put the tyre in a safety cage,


Using a clip on chuck, gradually
bring the air pressure up to the
recommended value to seat the
beads and then deflate the tyre.

Re-inflate it to the correct


pressure.

This inflation, deflation, and reinflation procedure allows the tube


to straighten itself out inside the
tyre and will remove any wrinkles
from the tube.

Tyre Mounting
Tube tyres

The air pressure in a tube-type tyre will drop after initial inflation.

the nylon plies stretch in the same way they do in a tubeless


tyre, and there may also be air trapped between the tube and
the tyre.

Inflation pressure will drop.

When all this trapped air leaks out around the valve, under
the beads, and through the sidewall vents.

All of this air should be out within the initial 12- to 24-hour period.
Pressure may then be adjusted and the tyre put in service.

Tyre Balancing

As aircraft takeoff speeds increase, the vibration caused


by unbalanced wheels becomes annoying.

And this vibration is especially noticeable on nose


wheels, since they extend quite a distance below the
airplane on a slender strut, and they usually do not have a
brake to help dampen the vibrations.

After the tyre is mounted on the


wheel, inflated, and allowed to take
its initial stretch, the assembly is
mounted on a balancing stand with
the cones of the balancing shaft
seating firmly against the bearing
cups in the wheel.

Place the shaft on the balancing


stand and allow the wheel to rotate
until its heavy point comes to a rest at
the bottom.

Tyre Balancing

Counterbalance the wheel with test


weights until the assembly is
balanced,

Install the correct amount of weight


on the wheel at the location identified
by the test weights.

Some balance weights are installed


on special brackets that mount under
the head of the wheel bolts,

Others fasten to the wheel rim by a


cotter pin through holes that have
been drilled in the rim for that
purpose.

Tyre Balancing
Many of the smaller wheels
do not have provisions for
mechanically attaching
balance weight

Lead strips having an


adhesive backing may be
used.

Use only the type of weight


that is approved for the
particular wheel being
balancing,

Follow the instructions in the


aircraft service manual for
the installation of these
weights.

Prevention of Creep

When in service, a tyre has a tendency to


rotate (creep) around the wheel.

This creep, if excessive, will tear out the


inflation valve and cause the conventional
tyre to burst, with tubeless tyres it will
cause deflation due to the seal being
broken at the bead seat.

Creep is less likely to occur if the tyre air


pressure is correctly maintained.

Prevention of Creep
Design features incorporated in
wheels are:

Knurled Flange
The inner face of the wheel
flange is milled so that the
side pressure of the tyre
locks the beads to the
flange;

This method is not used for


tubeless tyre wheels.

Prevention of Creep
Tapered Bead Seat.

The wheel rim is tapered so that


the flange area is of greater
diameter than that at the centre
of the rim.

When the tyre is inflated, the


side pressure forces the bead
outwards to grip the rim.

this method is suitable for


tubeless tyre wheels.

Creepmarks consisting of a
yellow painted strip running
across the edge of the rim and
onto the tyre are also used.

Aircraft Landing Wheels

Aircraft wheels provide the mounting for tyres,


which;
absorb shock on landing,
support the aircraft on the ground, and
assist in ground control during;
taxi,
takeoff and
landing.
Wheels are usually made from either
aluminium or
magnesium.
Either of these materials provides a strong,
lightweight wheel requiring very little maintenance.

Aircraft Landing Wheels


Single piece, drop centre wheel.
Been replaced by the more popular two-piece
wheel.
Tyres are removed and replaced on this type of
wheel by prying them over the rim.

Aircraft Landing Wheels


Removable Flange
The outer rim is removable and is held in place
when the tyre is inflated, with a snap ring.
Care must be exercised when inflating a tyre on a
wheel with removable flange,
If the snap ring is not properly seated, the flange
can blow off and create a hazard to anyone
standing nearby.

Aircraft Landing Wheels


Hardened steel
bearing races

High strength bolts

O Ring
Wheel assembly halves

Check for Axle Nut Torque


If too little torque is used on the axle nut,
bearing cup to become loose and spin,
enlarging its hole, and
requiring a rather expensive repair to the
wheel.
If the torque is too high,
the bearing can be damaged because the
lubricant will be forced out from between the
mating surfaces.
The amount of torque required vary with the
installation,
Procedure used for installing and securing the axle
nut must be that recommended by the airframe
manufacturer.

Removal of Wheel and Tyre Assembly


Before attempting to remove a wheel and tyre
assembly from an aircraft using two piece rims, the
tyre should first be deflated using a deflation cap
before attempting to remove the axle nut.

If due to some extreme force being applied to the


wheel rim on landing or takeoff, the bolts that hold
the two rim halves together may have sheared then
the only thing holding the complete assembly
together will be the axle nut.

If the axle nut is untorqued while the rim is in


the above state then there is a risk of serious
injury and damage to the aircraft resulting from
rapid deflation of the tyre.

Wheel Bearings
Tapered roller type

consist of
a bearing cone,
rollers with a retaining cage, and
a bearing cup, or outer race.
Each wheel has the

bearing cup, or race, pressed into place


hub-cap to keep dirt out of the outside bearing.
Suitable retainers are supplied inboard of the inner bearing
to prevent grease from reaching the brake lining.
Felt seals are provided to prevent dirt from fouling multipledisk brakes.
Seals are also supplied on amphibian aircraft to keep out
water.