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Optimizing Condition

Monitoring

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Agenda
 Asset Management & CM Solutions
 Condition Monitoring Technologies
 Condition Monitoring Products &
Services

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Asset Management

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The Concept
 What is an Asset?
 Assets of an organization
 Competitive advantage &
Profitability
 Managing your asset
 ROI, Payback, NPV, IRR

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Machinery - A primary
asset
 Managing your machinery
 ROI from your machinery
 When does it increase?…
 Maintenance & control
 Better Asset Management

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Maintenance as a profit
centre

 Maintenance is a ‘cost centre’


 But can we increase ROI from
machinery?
 Maintenance a potential PROFIT
CENTRE
 But how do we achieve that?…

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Life Cycle Profit (LCP)
Rs
Loss of contribution

Life Cycle Profit, LCP

Direct maintenance cos ts

Indirect maintenance costs


Capital costs etc.
Time

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Loss of Contribution
Loss of contribution

LCP

Direct maintenance costs


Indirect maintenance costs

Company XYZ: Availability


A = 95%
Performance efficiency (prod.speed, ton/hour)
Quality rate
P = 95%
Q = 95%
Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE)
OEE = 95% x 95% x 95%
Goal OEE = A • P • Q > 85 % WCM
= 85%

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Direct maintenance costs
Loss of contribution

LCP

Direct maintenance cos ts


Indirect maintenance costs

• Equipment (tools, instruments, etc.)


• Wages
• Spare parts
• Contracted services
• Overhead costs
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Reduces Maintenance
Expenses
 Spares and Consumables
 Repair
 Manpower
 Rework/Rejection
 Capital & Insurance

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Summary
 Better Asset Management – Higher ROI
 Higher Returns from Machinery Asset – Increase LCP
 To Increase LCP
 Increase Contribution
 Decrease Direct & Indirect Maintenance Exp
 To increase Contribution and decrease Expenses
 Condition Monitoring and Predictive Maintenance (PdM)
 Corrective Maintenance
 SPM provides solutions to achieve that…

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Solution Areas

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Condition Monitoring
Solutions
 Oil Analysis
 Shock Pulse Analysis
 Temperature Monitoring
 Ultrasound Monitoring 3

2.5

 Vibration Analysis
2

1.5

Wear Particle Analysis


0.5

 0
0 50 100 150 200 250

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Corrective Maintenance
Solutions
 Dynamic Balancing
 Machine Alignment using Laser
technology

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Solution Types

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Diagnostic Services
 Ferrography Analysis
 Shock Pulse Analysis
 Vibration Analysis
 In-situ Dynamic
Balancing
 Machine Laser
Alignment

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Products
 Hardware Instruments
 Portable
 Remote
 Surveillance
 Online Diagnostic
 Lab
 Software
 Data Analysis, Trending
and Reporting
 Training

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Condition Monitoring
Technologies & Methods

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Typical Machine Problems

Bearing Out of Mis- Looseness. Worn Gear


damage balance alignment coupling damage
(Elect&Mech)
Technologies to address
these typical problems…
 Shock Pulse Analysis
 Vibration Analysis
 Ferrography Analysis

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Shock Pulse Monitoring

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Bearing life unknown

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Shock Pulse

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Shock Pulse Method

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Shock Pulses from
Bearings

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Bearing & Lubrication
Condition

Good Bearing, Sufficient Lubrication

Good Bearing, Insufficient Lubrication

Damaged Bearing

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Bearing Life and Shock
Pulses

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Earliest detection of
Bearing damage

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Vibration Monitoring

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Overall Vibration

Unbalance
Misalignment

Gear problems ISO 2372/10816


Bearing

Problems
Looseness…
mm/s RMS

10-1000 Hz

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Trending Overall Vibration
Vibration severity Breakdown

Vibration
+ 4 steps
measurement
(Shutdown)
Effect repairs
+ 3 steps Report dangerous increase
Plan major
overhaul
+ 2 steps Report large increase
Inspection,
minor repairs
+ 1 step Report change

Routine Maintenance
maintenance
Normal
(lubrication, etc.) activities

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Increase in Overall
Vibration…
 One or more of:
 Unbalance
 Misalignment
 Gear problems
 Bearing Problems
 Looseness…

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Vibration Analysis

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Mechanical fault
Frequencies

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Time waveform &
Frequency spectrum

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 50 100 150 200 250

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Frequency Spectrum
Analysis

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Evaluated Vibration Analysis
Method
EVAM

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Symptom parameter
match

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Value of Symptom
parameter
mm/s
v4

Symptoms
as
VALUE
or COND

v3 v5
v2 v6
v1 v7

Hz

Broad band RMS-value = ∑v


f
2
f

Symptom RMS-value = v2 +v2 +v2 +v2 v2 v2 2


1 2 3 4 + 5 + 6 +v7

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Identified & Magnitude
Calculated

Measured RPM

Value and match

Spectrum line pattern


for gear mesh

Input no. of
gear teeth

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Parameter Criteria (base
line)
Statistical calculation. COND No.

mm/s
35 - 60 red
above 5 std

21 - 34 yellow
3 - 5 std

0 - 20 green
up to 3 std

time

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0
10
20
30
40
50
Rotational 60
Vel
Acc
Shock
Crest
Kurt
Skew
1000 Hz

Symptoms
Condition

Unbalance
Misalignment
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Looseness
Evaluated Overall
Evaluated Symptom
Condition - Unbalance
60

50

40

30

20

10

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Machine faults identified
Machines Faults
 Unbalance
 Motors  Misalignment
 Generators  Bearing damage
 Pumps  Improper Lubrication
 Gear problems
 Compressors  Belt problems
 Fans &  Looseness
Blowers  Electrical
Rotor Unbalance
Gear Box


 Rotor Eccentricity
 Turbines…  Rotor Bar defects

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Ferrography
Wear Particle Analysis

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Condition Monitoring
by Oil Analysis

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Two Different Objectives
 Monitoring Condition of Oil
 Lubricant analysis
 Physio-Chemical properties
 Moisture, TAN, TBN…

 Monitoring Condition of Equipment


 Wear Debris analysis
 Mechanical components
 Bearings, Gears…

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Wear Debris Analysis
 Particle Counting
 Spectroscopy
 Ferrography Wear Particle Analysis

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Ferrography
 Detects wear particles even > 250µ in
size
 Provides early indication of abnormal wear

 Details of machine condition:


 Cause
 Severity and
 Component of wear

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Fundamental Concept
 Four criteria are considered to evaluate condition:

 SIZE : Severity of wear

 SHAPE : Wear mechanism / Cause of wear

 COMPOSITION : Wearing component

 CONCENTRATION : Severity of wear

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Size
Cutting Wear Particles
(500X)

50 microns size 150 microns size


particle particle
MARGINAL CRITICAL
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Shape
Sliding Wear Spheres

Desc: Flat elongated Desc: Small spheres


platelets with
striations Cause: Rolling contact
failure in
Cause: Excessive load/speed Bearings
on sliding Copyright SPM India
Composition
Bearing Wear

Copper Alloy Low Alloy Steel Lead/Tin Babitt

reddish-yellow colour blue temper colour multi-coloured


on heat treatment on heat treatment

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Concentration
Wear Particle Concentration (WPC)

WPC=10 WPC=50 WPC=100

WPC=500 WPC=1000

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Analysis Procedure
 Sampling and Equipment data
 Stage I
 Quantitative measurement stage
 Identify abnormal wear by trending the concentration of wear particles
 Quantitative measuring instrument DR Direct Reading Ferrograph
 Stage II
 Analytical stage
 Identify the source (component), cause and severity of wear
 The FM Ferrograph separates the wear particles by size
 The Ferroscope is used to evaluate the separated wear particles

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Lab
Ferroscop
e

Softwar
e DR FM

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DR Direct Reading
Ferrograph
 Quantitative measuring
instrument
 Detects Small (DS) &
Large particles (DL)
 Measures WPC = DL +
DS

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FM Ferrogram Maker
 Slide maker
 Separates
particles from
lubricant
 Particle sorting by
size &
composition

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Ferrogram principle
Non-Ferrous Distance in mm Flux Lines w/Debris
Debris
N Magnet
EXIT END
Pole

Non-Magnetic
Barrier,
Non-Wetting 2.5mm
Barrier S Magnet
Pole

0.3x60mm ENTRY POINT


< 0.5 µ Ferrous <5µ >5µ
Glass Substrate Particles Ferrous Particles

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Ferroscope
 Identify particles
 100X, 500X, 1000X
 Multiple light sources
 Bi-chromatic
 Polarized
 Video Camera for
capturing image

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Particle Classification
 Ferrous:  Contaminants:
Black Oxides
 Low Alloy  Dust & Dirt
 Medium Alloy  Filter material
 High Alloy  External debris
Fibers
 Non-Ferrous:
Aluminium  Copper Alloy
Alloy
 Aluminium Alloy
 Babbitt (Lead/Tin)

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Severity Rating of Particles
 Subjective:
 Low concentration, Small size: 0-4
 Medium conc., Medium size:
5-7
 High conc., Large size:
8-10

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Overall Rating of
Equipment
 Criteria:
 Equipment
 WPC
 Severity rating of individual particles

 Rating:
 NORMAL
 MARGINAL
 CRITICAL

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Equipment monitored
 Compressor  Motor
 Engine  Paper Machine
 Exhauster  Pump
 Fan  Turbine
 Gear box
 Generator
 Hydraulic

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Benefits
 Provides early warning
 Identifies lubricant contamination
 Identifies specific failing components
 Helps monitor component deterioration

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Condition Monitoring &
Corrective Maintenance
Products & Services

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Products
 Hardware Instruments
 Portable
 Remote
 Surveillance
 Online Diagnostic
 Lab
 Software
 Data Analysis, Trending
and Reporting
 Training

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Diagnostic Services
 Ferrography Analysis
 Shock Pulse Analysis
 Vibration Analysis
 In-situ Dynamic
Balancing
 Machine Laser
Alignment

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Portable Products

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Basic Condition
ElectroLube Raytek

Automatic Non-contact IR Temperature


Lubrication
EMC-22 VIB-10 VIB-15

Vibration Velocity,
Motor Vibration Velocity RMS Displacement, Acceleration.
Checker mm/s Crest & RPM
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Basic Condition & Correction
BalanSure AT-30
 Light & Portable
 Phase measurement
 Dynamic Balancing
 Vibration
measurement
 Speed measurement

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Frontline Condition
Shock Pulse Analyzer A2011
 Shock Pulse:
 Bearing condition
 Lubrication condition
 Vibration Velocity
 RPM

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Shock Plus Analyzer plus
A4011
 Shock Pulse: Bearing & Lub
 Vibration AVD
 Vibration 1X,2X,3X
 Temperature
 RPM
 Current
 Long Time Recording
 Auto Measuring Point Id
 TLT
 Balancing Option

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Machine Condition Analyzer
A30
 Shock Pulse: Bearing &
Lub
 Vibration Velocity
 Vibration FFT Analysis
EVAM
 Temperature
 RPM
 Long Time Recording
 Auto Measuring Point Id
 TLT

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Correction
Leonova
 Shock Pulse: Bearing & Lub
 Vibration Velocity
 Vibration FFT Analysis EVAM
 Shock Pulse Spectrum
 Temperature
 RPM
 Long Time Recording
 Auto Measuring Point Id
 2 plane Balancing
 Laser Alignment

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Leonova Shock Pulse
Spectrum

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Leonova Balancing
 Single Plane
 Dual Plane

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Leonova Laser Alignment
 Line Laser
 Horizontal
 Vertical
 Soft foot
 Thermal growth

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Advanced Trouble Shooting
DCX
 4 channel Vibration Analyzer
 Tri-axial data collection
 All-in-One: GB memory
 Entire Data Base: no routes
 Expert Analysis: On site report
 Phase measurement
 Multi-plane Balancing
 Run-up & Coast down
 Orbit, Bode plots
 Current Analysis

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Machine Laser Alignment
Fixturlaser Shaft, Roll, Geo
 Shaft Alignment
 Geometric
Alignment
 Roll Alignment
 Turbine Alignment
 Bore Alignment

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Ultrasound Monitoring
Accutrack VPX
 Air Leaks
 Valves
 Steam Traps

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Remote Monitoring
 Measure:
 Shock Pulse
 Overall Vibration

 System consists of:


 Permanent
Transducers
 Connector & Cable
 Terminal Box
 Portable Instrument
 Measurement

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Online Surveillance
 Measure:
 Temperature
 Shock Pulse
 Overall Vibration

4-20mA, Buffer
Output
Alarm, Trip
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Vibration Transmitter
VT1C & VT2C
 Measures Overall
Vibration Severity
 1 ch, 2 ch
 4-20 mA output
 Buffer output

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Vibration Switch
VS1C
 Measures Overall
Vibration Severity
 Adjustable Alarm
limits
 Trip relay

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Bearing & Vibration Modules
CMM
 Shock Pulse Module
 Vibration Module
 Temperature Module
 4-20 mA output
 Display

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Rack Mounted Modules
CMR
 Shock Pulse
Module
 Vibration Module
 Temperature
Module
 4-20 mA output
 Display

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Vibration
Machine Guard MG-4

2 ch VIB, 2 ch SPM
Automatic Condition
4-20 mA & Relay
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Online Diagnostic System
CMS: BMS & VCM
 Measure:
 Overall
Vibration
 Vibration
Analysis
 Speed
 Shock Pulse
 Temperature

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Total Plant Online

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Ferrography WPA Lab

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Software

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logger and Online
Monitoring System

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Plant Condition in Software

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Machine Condition in
Software

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0
10
20
30
40
50
60

Rotational
forcesVel
Acc
Shock
Cresr
Kurt
Skew
Friction
NL1
1000
Hz

NL2
NL3
NL4
Symptoms
Gear mesh
Unbalance
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Misalignment
Detailed condition in G-Y-R
Vibration Spectrum in
Software

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Features of Software
 Graphical overview
 Data storage
 Trends
 Analysis
 Alarm list
 Work orders
 Fault statistics
 Reports
 Import / Export

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CBT Software - Vibration
 iLearn Vibration
 Reference Centre
 Case Histories
 Virtual Test Rig
 Signal
demonstrator
 Machine modeler

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CBT Software - Alignment

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Services

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Ferrography Report

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Ferrography Case Study

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Shock Pulse &
Vibration Analysis Report
Velocity in PUMP  A) Overall Vibration Readings
mm/sec- FREE The Maximum overall vibration amplitude recorded
RMS DRIVE END
END was 10.68 mm/sec in axial direction at Pump DE
Horizontal
4.61 4.61
bearing.
 Interpretation: As per ISO 10816 Standards, this
Vertical 6.26 4.66 is considered to be “Critical”
  Axial
  9.73 10.68
 
 B) Spectrum Analysis:
SPM LR\HR
37\27 46\37 The Fan DE axial direction spectrum shows
predominant peaks at 990 CPM.
 Interpretation: This shows symptoms of
misalignment.

 Recommendations:
 Review the alignment between the Engine & Pump.
 Ensure specified tension in the transmission belts.
 Inspect the bearings during planned Maintenance.

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Case 1
Equipment: Thermal Shield Fan
Company: RAPS

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Unbalance identified

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After Balancing

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Before & After Balancing

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Case 2

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Shock Pulse Analysis–Bearing
Condition

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Unbalance Identified

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After Balancing

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Thank You

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