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B.

Eng (Hons) Chemical Engineering


Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
(ECE3253)
Introduction
(Week 1)

PowerPoint Slides
by PS Yap

Chapter Overview

The use of chemical engineering thermodynamics

The equilibrium state

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Learning Objectives
1. To introduce the basic properties of chemical
engineering thermodynamics
2. To introduce the concepts of equilibrium

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Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to:
1. Define the basic terminology of thermodynamics, such
as internal energy, potential energy, kinetic energy,
system, and phase
2. Understand the general concepts of equilibrium, which
is very important in the application of thermodynamics
in chemical engineering

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Introduction
Internal energy The energy of a substance associated
with the motions, interactions, and bonding of its
constituent molecules
External energy Associated with the velocity and
location of its centre of mass, which is of primary interest
in mechanics
System The region under study, which may be a
specified volume in space or a quantity of matter
Surrounding The rest of the universe
Phase The state of agglomeration of the system, that
is whether it is a gas, liquid, or solid

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Introduction contd
Adiabatic system A well-insulated system in which there are no
heat flows in or out.
Closed system A system in which there are no mass flows in or
out.
Isolated system A system that is closed to the flow of mass and
energy in the form of work flows and heat flows (i.e. is
adiabatic)
Open/Steady-flow system A system in which flows of mass,
heat, and work may be present but in such a way the system
properties do not change over time
Cyclic process A process that follows a periodic path so that
the system has the same properties at any point in the cycle
as it did at that point in any preceding or succeding cycle
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A System of Units

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The Equilibrium State


Steady states Also known as time-invariant states.
Natural flows Flows that arise naturally and drive the
system to equilibrium
Forced flows Flows imposed on the system by its
surrounding

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The Equilibrium State (contd)


Stable system The system returns to its initial equilibrium
states
Unstable system The system does not return to its initial
state

Figure 1.3-1 Blocks in states (a) and (b) are stable to small mechanical
disturbances; the delicately balanced block in state (c) is not

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Pressure, Temperature, and Equilibrium


P V RT
T (K) T(C) 273.15
where :
P absolute pressure
V molar volume
R gas constant
T temperature

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Heat, Work, and the Conservation of Energy


Heat Transfer of energy as a result of only a temperature
difference
Work Energy transfer by any mechanism that involves
mechanical motion of or across the system boundaries

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Heat, Work, and the Conservation of Energy


(contd)

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Intensive and Extensive Variables


Intensive variables Size-independent property (e.g.
pressure and temperature)
Extensive variables Variable dependent on the size or
amount of the system (e.g. mass, volume and total
energy)

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Equations of State
^

P P(T, V)
^

U U(T, V).....Equation (1.6 1)


U U(T, P)
U U(P, V)
P P(U, V)......Equation (1.6 2)
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References
S.I. Sandler (2006). Chemical, Biochemical, and
Engineering Thermodynamics. John Wiley.

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