Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

Introduction to

Numerical Control

Objectives
Understand the principle of numerical control
Explore the various modes of operation

of

numerical control
Elements that are required for the successful
operation numerical control
Discuss the application of numerical control in
the industry
Understand the advantages and disadvantages
of adopting numerical control
Look at a few of the practical NC machines

9/11/15

Numerical control
Numerical

control of machine tools may be


defined as a method of automation in which
various functions of machine tools are
controlled by letters, numbers and symbols.
Numerical control (NC) is a form of flexible (programmable)
automation in which the process is controlled by numbers, letters,
and symbols.
The electronic industries association (EIA) defined NC as
A system in which actions are controlled by the direct
insertion of numerical data at some point. The system must
automatically interpret at least some portion of this data.
9/11/15

Elements of NC machine tool operation-Basic


Components
An NC system
consists of the
machine tools, the
part-program, and
the machine control
unit (MCU).

-----N030 G00 X34.43 Y12.5


N035 Z2.0
N040 G01 X105.0 Y35.5
N045 X55.0 Y65.0
N050 G00 Z50
------

PART DRAWING

PAPER
TAPE READER

PART PROGRAM

PROGRAM
TAPE

CONTROLLER

9/11/15

Numerical Control Elements


Machine control unit
Part program
Program coding systems
Part Program Input
NC Tooling

9/11/15

Principle of operation of a NC machine tool

Data flow
MACHINE
CONTROL
UNIT

9/11/15

The data processing in a


CNC machine tool in closed
loop control

SPINDLE

MOTOR

TABLE

SLIDE
MOVEMENT
FEEDBACK
DEVICE

MOTOR SIGNAL
MCU

FEEDBACK SIGNAL

Principle of operation of the control of axis motion in a NC


machine tool

9/11/15

Automatic Functions in a NC Machine Tool


Starting

and stopping of machine tool spindle

Controlling

the spindle speed

Positioning

the tool tip at desired locations and guiding it along

desired paths by automatic control of the motion of slides


Controlling
Changing

9/11/15

the rate of movement of the tool tip (i.e. feed rate)

of tools in the spindle.

Machine Tools
The machine tools perform the useful work.
A machine tool consists of.
A worktable,
One or more spindles, motors and controls,
Cutting tools,
Work fixtures, and.
Other auxiliary equipment needed in the machining
operation.

The drive units are either powered by


stepping motors (for open-loop control),
servomotors (for close-loop control),
pneumatic drives, or hydraulic drives.

The Machine Control


Unit
The

machine control unit consists of the data

processing unit (DPU) and the control loop unit (CLU).


The DPU decodes the information contained in the

part-program, process it, and provides instructions to


the CLU.
The CLU operates the drives attached to the machine

lead screws and feedback signals on the actual


position and velocity of each one of the axes.
drive units are actuated by voltage pulses.
11

The

Machine Control
Unit

9/11/15

(c) TMH, New Delhi, CAD/CAM


Principles and Applications by P N
Rao, 3rd Ed

12

MCU Organization(Data processing in a closed system


(NC Actuation systems)
NC machine

Machine Control Unit

D
P
U

4
1

POWER

C
L
U

ME 474:M M M (Adaptive control Machining) Dr B S Prasad, Asst.Prof, Mech Dept

Simple Drilling operation

Typical spindle tooling holding an End Mill


and Turning
Retention Knob

Adopter

End Mill

9/11/15

14

Advantages of NC
Parts

can be produced in less time and


therefore are likely to be less expensive. It is
possible to reduce the non-productive time in
NC machine tools in the following ways:
by reducing the number of setups,
by reducing setup time,
by reducing workpiece-handling time, and
by reducing tool-changing time.
Higher Precision, Better Quality , Higher Productivity
Parts

can be produced more accurately even


for smaller batches.
9/11/15

15

Limitations of NC
The

cost of NC machine tool is much high.


Cost and skill of the people required to
operate a NC.
Special training needed to the personnel
manning the NC machine tools.
As NC is a complex and sophisticated
technology,
it
also
requires
higher
investments for maintenance.
The automatic operation of NC machines
implies relatively higher running costs.
9/11/15

16

Types of NC machine tools or Types NC control systems


or Modes of NC control systems

ME 474:M M M (Adaptive control Machining) Dr B S Prasad, Asst.Prof, Mech Dept

G00 Rapid Positioning

G01 Straight cut (Linear Interpolation)


ME 474:M M M (Adaptive control Machining) Dr B S Prasad, Asst.Prof, Mech Dept

G02 Circular
interpolation,CW

ME 474:M M M (Adaptive control Machining) Dr B S Prasad, Asst.Prof, Mech Dept

G03 Circular interpolation,

CNC & DNC machines

Computer
Numerical Control

CNC Introduction
C+

NC= CNC
NC with dedicated computer is known as CNC
Software controlled
MCU of CNC is based on a dedicated microcomputer

High program storage capacity


Various forms of program input (including
punched tape)
RS-232
Industrial keypad for manual entry

Program editing within MCU

Saves time

CNC Consists of
Memory
- RAM: Operating
System
- ROM: Part
Program

Central
Processing
Unit
(CPU)

I/O Interface
- Operator Panel
- Tape reader

System
bus
Machine Tool
Control
- Position Control
- Spindle Control

Sequence Control
- Coolant
- Tool Changer
- Automatic Chucking

CNC Features

High program storage capacity


Various forms of program input
Punched Tape
Magnetic Tape
Floppy Disk
RS-232
Industrial keypad for manual entry

Program editing within MCU


Saves time

CNC machining setup

Direct Numerical
Control
DNC=

Direct NC or Distributed NC
Developed in 1960s
Controlling number of machine tools by a single
main frame computer through direct connection
and in real time
MCUs of Individual Machines were free from punched
tape reader
MCUs are connected to Main frame computer by BTR:
Behind tape reader
Central Computer supplied one block of instruction to
MT each time on demand.
2 way communication between central computer & MT

Components

of Direct

NC:
Central Computer
Bulk Memory
Central
Number of MTs
Computer
Communication links

MT1

MT2

MCU

Bulk
memory
NC
Programs
Telecommunication lines

MCU

MCU

MT3

Advantages
High reliability
Elimination of tape & tape reader
Control no. of MTs with single computer
Improved computational capabilities
Improved prog. storage
Limitations
No alternative way of prog. Entry in case of Central
Comp. Failure
Slow compared to Distributed NC

Distributed Numerical
Control
Central

Computer is connected to MCUs of

MTs
MCUs are computer themselves
Central
Computer
uploads
complete
program in MCU on demand
2 way communication
Data & information flow
Can have variety of configuration
(a) Switching network
(b) LAN

DNC
Computer
MC
U

MT

MC
U
Data
Switching
Box

MC
U

MC
U

MT
MC
U

MT

DNC: Switching
Network

MT

MT

DNC
Computer

Satellite
Computer

Satellite
Computer

MC
U

MT

MC
U

MT

MC
U

MT

DNC: LAN

MC
U

MT

SAMPLE
CNC MACHINES

CNC TURNING

CNC Programming

ME 474:M M M (Adaptive control Machining) Dr B S Prasad, Asst.Prof, Mech Dept

CNC Axes

+Z

+X
Tool at (25, 35)
G00 X0 Z35
G00 X0 Z0
CNC 1

CNC 2

CNC Drill

CNC MILLING

Topic: Nomenclature of the NC machine axes:

AXIS - Standards

Co-ordinate system
Designating the axis
CNC 3

CNC 4
ME 474:M M M (Adaptive control Machining) Dr B S Prasad, Asst.Prof, Mech Dept

Features of NC Machine Tools (Machining Centres)


The features that typically characterizes the NC machining centre include
the following and it must perform variety of operations on single set up
Automatic tool changing capability (ATC)
Automatic work part positioning
Automatic Pallet shuttle
Tool magazine

CNC 5

ME 474:M M M (Adaptive control Machining) Dr B S Prasad, Asst.Prof, Mech Dept